Energy Efficiency Directive: A success or a failure?

The EU ETS is the main European scheme in charge of the limitation of carbon emissions for over 11,000 installations accounting for almost half of the EU emissions, which has been seen, recently, poor in its actions as a result of the interaction of this policy tool with the complementary policies such as the ones addressing renewable energy deployment or energy efficiency. This is why when thinking about energy efficiency policies should we ask ourselves:  Are we on the correct direction? What is interaction with the other policies?

During the 90s European countries decided to make a commitment towards global climate challenges under the UNFCCC, adopting the Kyoto Protocol, which targeted GHG emissions reductions, but it was quickly acknowledged that a transition towards an efficient and low-carbon energy system was needed. In 2005, the Emissions Trading System (ETS) was launched, setting a price to carbon emissions, as the main tool to achieve emissions reductions in the covered sectors towards meeting the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. Early in 2009 the 2020 targets were set, aiming towards a economy-wide 20% reduction of GHG emissions relative to 1990 levels (setting most of the burden on the EU ETS covered sectors), an increase in the renewable energy supply of 20% and also an improvement of energy efficiency of 20%, i.e., the 20, 20, 20 goals for 2020. However, unlike the first two objectives, efficiency was not translated into binding legislation until 2012, which delayed action making it more difficult to reach the energy efficiency objectives.


Energy efficiency is one of the most cost-effective ways to enhance security of energy supply by reducing its demand, and to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Despite all this positive characteristics it seems that the energy efficiency target will be hard to meet by 2020. EU Member States, failed on looking towards the great benefits from the correct implementation of this policy, which could be summarized in a reduction of the amount of energy imports of 200 billion € annually could be achieved by 2020, or the creation of new green collar jobs and business opportunities could arise.

In an attempt to address these problems, in 2012, a new framework with binding goals was established: the Energy Efficiency Directive, which ensures the achievement of the Union’s 20% target. However there was lack of agreement on targets at national levels and as a result the target is only binding at the EU level. On the bright side there was agreement upon binding sectoral measures, with, e.g., higher impact in the buildings sector (one of the highest emitting sectors, together with transport).

It was stated that all EU Members would be required to have a more efficient use of energy through all the stages of the energy chain (from transformation to consumption). As an example energy companies will be requested to reduce energy sales by 1.5% every year among their customers, compensated by an improvement in the technology used in the heating system, installing double glass windows or insulating roofs.


Also with this new directive, each individual nation will have to draw an energy efficiency roadmap target to make the whole building sector more efficient by 2050. On the other hand they will have to achieve energy savings during the obligation period (January 2014- December 2020) assuring energy efficiency implementation in households, industries and transport sector.

Buildings owned by the public sector, to set the example, will have to renovate a 3% of the building owned by the government of each country, to promote energy efficiency in society.

In additions to this each Member State will have until the 30th April 2013 to present national target, running the risk that if the European Commission finds it insufficient to meet the 2020 goals they can ask the to redefine them.

This directive will have the aim to be revised during the first semester of 2014, but if the Commissions considers that the progress made are inexistent or too small, other further and harsher legislation will be implemented for the EU members.

Another big issue that impedes the correct implementation of Energy Efficiency is the barriers that it confronts. One of these barriers is the lack of awareness and access to information.  Accessing this information is too expensive for the governments, what makes countries see that initial investment in energy efficiency, too costly for solutions at such a long term. Although as the main problem to achieve energy efficiency is the high financial restrictions, a correct time horizon should help to achieve this goal (area in which they are lacking to make the correct movements to move towards this path). Finally also the risks that investors face are extremely high, having uncertainty in when the payback periods will start and if it will start.

The main difficulty that energy efficiency is facing towards its effective implementation is the boundaries between the European Directive and the national laws applied by Member States, characterized by their heterogeneous positions with respect to energy efficiency, as some have a more proactive attitudes and others only comply with mandatory measures. If a degree of adjustment and integration could be achieved it would finally translate to a better situation of European Energy Efficiency policy.

Furthermore, as noted earlier, the Energy Efficiency Directive seems to be misaligned with the 20% emission reduction goal economy-wide relative to 1990, and notably when it comes to the EU ETS covering half of the total emissions and its 21% reduction goal relative to 2005. Currently the EU ETS has a surplus of allowances and the EC foresees that such surplus will continue beyond 2020. If fully implemented, the Energy Efficiency Directive would indirectly further increase the surplus of allowances under the EU ETS by 2020, further undermining the price signal which is already too low as a result of the economic crisis and the deployment of renewable energy to achieve the Renewable Energy goals. This would be the case unless the EU manages to create credibility on its cap and trade or, at least, puts forward the structural changes that would get the market on the right tack that shifts the short-term prevailing focus towards mid- to long-term horizons.



Thus should we really in this new directive? Should we really on this alignment between the EU ETS and Energy Efficiency directive to stop the increase of the surplus of allowances? If we formed part of the EU ETS, maybe this should be some question that we should be asking ourselves when refereeing to energy efficiency. Because at the end of the match what do we want to reach? A victory from both sides (EU ETS and Energy Efficiency Directive) on their targets? Or loss because of shortage of coordinate steps?


The Small Ingredient of The Future

The multinational companies: a vast majority of us would certainly think that working on a company of this kind could satisfy all our working needs, but haven’t you ever thought about other alternatives? What about SMEs?

The traditional business, the massive machine that tries to inundate the whole market and have the ability to produce continuous profits, is normally seen as the most profitable and proactive in changes. Is this totally true?

SMEs are starting to be the alternative, the flavor that sticks after a tasty dish of food. They have the capacity of being innovative, creative, practical, profitable and also able to have a certain harmony with the society and the environment. They are able to give voice to solutions that society demands, or doesn’t even know that they are demanding, which that big companies are not even able to hear or to see before it becomes a problem.


Small sometimes is seen as a weakness, but why not turning it the other way round? Small companies are able to make movement much quicker than big once. If there is a certain problem with the product that they offer or the perception that customers have of the product, they are able to change the path much quicker because they are lighter. One of this movements in a big company would take ages to be made, having too much overweight to achieve the goal on time.

SMEs are innovation, creativity, inspiration and proactiveness. They feed day after day with this basic ingredients, as if they don’t have them on their daily activities they won’t be able to push to create that gap in the business world that they want to occupy.

What about CSR? Are this small business able to introduce it in their business concept? Many small companies apply CSR into the core business without even knowing what this means, because it forms part of their name, of their essence and their reason. As companies are much smaller, it much easier to achieve the objective that has been labeled under the CSR concept. Focus is easier to maintain, without running the risk of losing it along the path. They feed people all around the world!! SMEs represent more than 90% of the business that exist in developing countries!! They are certainly the future.

SMEs are the actual providers of employment in our unstable society. The massive problem of unemployment has more possibilities of being solved than with this concept, and giving the employee a reason for committing as well as meaningful job to perform day after day and the possibility of increasing their skills, sharing a same area of values that helps them achieve together the final goal.


Therefore lets try to make SMEs the future…the ingredient? LOVE!! Make employees, consumer, suppliers, the environment and the shareholders LOVE your brand, your concepts and your ideas, and instead of making it “YOUR’S” make it “OUR’S”…if we manage this we will be positively influencing all of our stakeholders, making a better society and achieving our final goal with a 100% success.

Have you changed your mind? Where do you want to work know?


Time to change direction

Replicable individuals or clones could be the words that can define our character and our actions throughout the centuries. More and more individuals going in the same direction, working in the same type of business, with similar focus in their careers and taking steps towards one and unique desired outcome: Money.


But is it worth it?

Why not making our job part of our live? Developing a certain action that cannot just give us an economic output, but also something that can make us, and others “richer” than what we are. Challenging yourself, taking risks and seeking for your limits, as well having freedom in your decisions, and the right to decide which path you want to take.

We all have a passion inside us, maybe you have never thought deep on it, but we do. Have you ever though that this passion that you have can work towards a better society, satisfy a specific social need, or even affect positively a certain community? Maybe then you are a social entrepreneur without even being conscious of it. But now your probably asking yourselves: What is a social entrepreneur?

Social entrepreneur is someone who recognizes a certain problem or demand in society and decides to use the entrepreneurial spirit plus the social attitude to reach the change. It’s the fusion between business and doing good socially. It’s the future.


Taking this role in society is today’s business, as the traditional business is becoming day after day completely obsolete. If you take a stop and have a small think, you can easily come to the conclusion that having a good product or service can’t be define as “good” product, if you don’t care about your customers or the way you produce the product (employees). A good product or services is also defined by its responsible actions. Society needs people compromised with the now, with the people, with reality. Customers demand more than a service or a good, they demand a reason, a passion and a solution.

It will be hard, probably harder than starting a new conventional business, but with some essential ingredients like an innovative idea, a bit of creativity and with a high social impact it will be worth it.

Why not trying to make things better than they are? Trying to change the direction of some fishes that go one way and make them start to search for other options.  It’s the moment for the change, is the moment for earning more than material things, gaining personal satisfaction by giving something demanded and necessary to others as well as sharing a solution, looking at what you can reach with your hard work and with individual’s help, to get a closer look towards how a better world would look like.




Our Pressures Treasure…

Sometimes we think we need to look far away to find malnourished children, not realizing that you can just find them around the corner.

Spain, a developed country forming part of the EU has one of the highest child poverty rates of industrialized countries (stated by UNICEF), where 3 million people survive with less than 300€ per month.


The number of families living under the poverty line in Spain doubles the figures of 2008, increasing during the year 2012 in 5 points up to 28,2%.  But even more astonishing is to know that more than 1 of every 4 children under the age of 16 in Spain live below the poverty line.

The economic crisis that the Spanish population is suffering in addition to the increasing decrease of income received per habitant, have been major problems. One of the greatest causes of this poverty expansion is due to a high rate of households lacking of a monthly income, fact that is rising at a high speed.

Government’s acts are insufficient, to worsen even more the situation, they have made cuts of 65% in the budget of social services network. Where does this leave all those families, which have a high dependency in these services for their survival?

Childhood is the population group with highest risk of social exclusion, in comparison with the rest of the population. Then why instead of trying to solve it and fight against this frightening problem, we make it even worse by reducing aids for  school canteens (which is sometimes the only meal that children will have access to in a whole day) or deteriorating the public health service to which they could have access to, limiting the opportunity of alerting of the health needs that they are lacking. To what extend is malnutrition growing in our country? We need to demand a much more transparent information, to understand the correct actions and actors we need to play with, to be able to stop or control the problem


The EU is highly concerned with the high increase of the levels of poverty in Spain, country that receives the highest quantity of European food aid, going up to more than 17%.

An increasing difference between lower and upper income society is growing at a steady speed, provoking that the majority of the people from the middle class vanish towards the low-income population. If this happens, who will be able to pay all those taxes that provide social services, or subsidies to those people?

Government needs to act and provide clear solution that will be beneficial for the society, to those that they supposedly represent and for the once that they argue they defend their rights.

Why them, the once that describes the situation, the once that own the power and the economic support don’t stop talking and just act towards the extinction of these issues?

Will we have future actions? Are we so blind that we don’t really see that they are the future of this country? Don’t they have the right to receive a dignified standard of living? What will Spain be in 20 years if we don’t protect one of our pressures treasures? The children.


Drinking Pesticides

Isn’t it pleasant to drink a fresh glass of water when we are thirsty? But what would you think if you knew you were drinking pesticides?

Fresh water accounts for less than a 2.5% of Earth´s water, and an 80% it is concentrated in the polar areas and glaciers of the world. That leaves us with a small percentage, which we are constantly contaminating.




Population growth has been one of the main causes of an excessive use of pesticides worldwide. This growth has lead to a steady increase in the world’s food demand, which has been translated to a major use of pesticides with the objective of controlling the amount of pests, insects and organisms that attack crops, to reach the desired demand.

Although pesticides can solve pest problem in target plants, they can also attack non-target biodiversity and ecosystems, like aquatic environment and groundwater changing properties of water and the surrounding habitat.

Groundwater can be contaminated with pesticides because of several factors. The solubility of the pesticides as well as environmental factors (e.g. type of soil, seasons and distance from water sources) are major reasons for this contamination.  Also pesticides reach these plots when there are no planted crops or they are too young.  Runoff (pesticides get into the groundwater in areas where they were not initially located) and Run-in are also methods of contamination.

Chemicals can vary in time needed to get into the ground area. The effects of pesticides used a decade a go could still not be reflected in the underground water, what can still make us unaware of the effects of some chemicals.

Depending of the depth that a well has, the effects would be seen sooner or later. If an improvement in the use of certain pesticides would be applied, or we shifted to a smaller amount of it’s use, it would take longer to see this positive effect on well with bigger depth.




Although there are also alternative uses of pesticides and method to try to fight against pest. This could be translated to an improvement on the Earths Health.

Human and biodiversity health can be improved by having a continues control over pesticides an their effects. Water and wells should be continuously tested to avoid diseases and illnesses caused because of these chemicals, this way we will control the water that we take into our body and prevent ourselves from future unknown illness.

It’s better to act in a responsible way, rather than waiting to see the contraindicated effects that will occur in future generation, between which we could find one of our Childs. Society should concentrate in a change of direction in which we should be aiming towards preservation of our resources and in this particular case; we should preserve the quality of having in the long term a fresh glass of water.


Perlman, H (2013) Pesticides in Groundwater

Jerry L. Cook, Paul Baumann, John A. Jackman, and Doug Stevenson. Texas A&M University [no date] Pesticides Characteristics that affect water quality

Pesticides in Drinking water


Human actions: the cause of habitat fragmentation?

Habitat fragmentation could be translated to the loss of a variety of fauna and flora, which is an alarming problem for biodiversity. But could we say that a big cause of this issue is manmade? Humans are responsible for fragmentation in a wide range of sectors, like agriculture, urbanization, deforestation and also pollution.


We can differ between two types of fragmentations. On one hand we have fragmentation produced by natural forces and on the other hand fragmentation produced by humankind.

Through fragmentation produced by nature, species are able to evolve along with the changes produced, what makes them generate stronger specie capable of dealing with the new conditions. These natural changes can also cause a wider biodiversity since the new setting may promote other species to live and survive in this certain area, and finally the ecosystem will restore.

Fragmentation induced by human activity cause wider and permanent effects. Landscapes are changed into roads, crop areas or housing areas, this impedes that lots of the resources, like nutrients, living space or water, reach the different fauna and flora, complicating their possibilities of survival, and making it impossible for the recovery of the ecosystem.

Human activity is devastating areas like the tropical forest, which has at least 50% of world biodiversity. We are depleting these areas, making it more and more difficult for species to survive. Fragmentation is produced with the high rate of cutting trees in these areas creating smaller plots for animal’s survival, as well as animal movement to other spaces is limited. Diseases affecting species will also, be isolated, stopping the ecosystem from stabilize by itself.

Although solutions to mitigate the effects of fragmentation produced by motorways, highways or railways could be solved through the construction of Green Bridges, positioning them in places that have been studied as animal transit areas. These bridges are normally planted with variety of flora, with the intention of making the transit path more attractive for animals.


Fragmentation is being produced at a high speed due to human intervention. But us as humans can never forget that we can´t live without biodiversity, therefore a limit should be taken to this issue and alternative uses should be made to achieve the conservation of a world balance.


C. Michael Hogan (2010). Habitat Fragmentation. The Encyclopaedia of the Earth

Threats to Global Biodiversity (2006).

Green Bridges/Wildlife crossing. Ecological Networks in the European Alps.




Knowledge-sharing and sustainability: Pastoral Development in Senegal

Small projects made in small places can make the difference, just by acting and introducing knowledge in a community. A group of researchers situated in the Canary Island of Tenerife, which form part of ICIA (Instituto Canario de Investigación Agraria) have carried out the technical direction of a pastoral project in Senegal, specifically in the region of St. Louis, where we can find the Peul ethnic group who have a ranching tradition.

Senegalese women

Good projects such as this should be praised and supported. This is a community with a clear competence: they are farmers (belonging to a cattle cooperative) and they know how to develop this work. Why not giving them the right tools to create a competitive advantage from it?

This is the main objective of the project: to provide them with the hardware to produce their own supplies of meat and milk. Senegal is a country characterized by its dryness, poor fodder, and poor production of milk and meat and, on the social side, discrimination of women in this sector. The project’s task was to fight against all these problems and the approach they had was through a pilot farm.

In this pilot farm they taught the Senegalese in livestock management issues and management of forage that could withstand high temperatures and sufficient nutrients for the production of milk and meat. They also introduced a Canarian goat, which comes for the island of Fuerteventura. It  is a very dry island, and this specie of goat is used to shortage of food and water. Unlike the Senegalese goat, it´s a great producer of milk, and therefore seemed to be the best species to introduce in the area.

Goat of Fuerteventura ("Cabra Majorera") introduced in Senegal


The Senegalese are used to producing milk for their daily consumption, but what can they do with their surplus? Conservation of milk for future consumption is still unimaginable in Senegal, which is why they need another way to cope with that surplus. In the village of Richard Toll, the ICIA team created a small dairy plant where all this surplus of milk can be taken and transformed into different products, creating a connection between the farmers.

The community also faced the problem of the less productive breeds of goat, as it is difficult for them to access water and livestock food. Added to these problems are low rainfall and lack of training in this area.

This is where the role of women came in.  Women became the centre of this activity, as they were the ones responsible for the transformation of milk and also the financial accounting of the dairy plant. They formed an association of 50 women, which specialized in the production of a type of yogurt called Lait Caillé.  As there were other products that they could produce with the milk, the  team assisted with the transference of this knowledge. They taught them, for example, how to produce cheese.



Senegalese women learning how to make cheese

This new role that women began to have in society gave them status and a control over an issue where men were not present. Also, they had a new responsibility, not only about learning how to maintain the dairy plant but also about the development of their community; transferring information to other areas and looking for the engagement and participation of their society.

Overall it seems as a great project and has been received with enthusiasm by the community with new learning, new tools and new knowledge. However, we should ask ourselves:  is it the correct knowledge?

The problem with projects led by richer countries is that they are difficult to continue because of lack of funding which can provoke incomplete implementation of knowledge in the community. A time is stated for the development of the project (in this case 3 years), but small details are not taken into account, for example: are there any difficulties in the process? Do we have new information from the community, which can help us understand what they really need?  Are they able to develop the activity by themselves? Is there remote monitoring of the project?

Researchers devoted to this type of project try to develop them and try to transfer the knowledge, but if institutions decide when a project ends, there is little that they can do to ensure that knowledge-transfer is sustainable. This is where countries that give this type of service to Southern countries should question themselves: is it better to give non-donor countries an incomplete piece of the pie or should donor countries give them the whole pie?

In order to try and address these issues, the G-20 developing group, through the Seoul Multi-Year Action Plan, is trying to implement better ways of knowledge-sharing to deliver tools, information and technology to those countries that demand it. They believe that triangular cooperation could create equilibrium in the way this demand is achieved, as there would be a participation of three main agents: the donor countries, middle-income countries and low-income countries. Through this cooperation strategy, a win-win-win horizontal partnership could be achieved.

Cooperation should be the tool used to move into other stages, to improve bidirectional knowledge, to motivate parts to ensure the best accomplishment, a way of motivating to achieve the goal and also to ensure long-term knowledge, where both parts are constantly enriching their know-how and their capacity of performance. Sharing will drive us to the best equal and sustainable development.




Why Public Electric Transport in Tenerife?


The island of Tenerife (Spain), forms part of a group of 7 island of the Canary Archipelago, located in the    Atlantic Ocean, near to Morocco. The island is the capital of the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife being  the largest island with a surface of 2,034.38 km2 and a population of 898,680 inhabitants.


The tertiary sector (more specifically tourism) is the dominant field in the canarian economy. This sector has contributed to the change produced in the economic system during the last 50 years, becoming the engine of the Island´s economy. As we can see Tenerife has a high dependence on tourism. Being so high, that investment in this sector is a profitable acquisition.

As the renewable energy sector is boosting in the island, it could maybe be seen as beneficial source to be used for the tourism industry.


Urban challenges in the Island

Although it can seem surprising to many people, as the media sells the island as an idyllic destination, the reality is that it has loads of urban challenges.

The worst problem that the island currently suffers is traffic congestion, which provoked an increase of a 29% in greenhouse gases, along with the refinery, during the period of 1990 to 2010 (emissions produced by buses just reach a 3% of gas emissions). Too many cars, with a single passenger, travel to the capital each day. This is due to a high percentage of the population working or studying in the metropolitan area (Santa Cruz and San Cristobal de La Laguna).

If we had to divide the transport selection, we would find out that a 99.63% of the population would opt for the private transport while  the small remaining percentage would choose public transport.  The main reason why this choice is so small is because of its  inefficiency (too-expensive and bad organized schedules).

This crucial problem is creating a negative image of the island, causing problems in the touristic sector. So why not producing    and   investment in public transport to obtain higher profits in the tourist sector?

The ideal solution


Public transports price is one of the big reasons why citizens don´t select this option to move around the island. One of the causes of high volatility in public transport prices is due to the change in petrol costs. This insatiability of the prices provokes that people select private transport over public, as it ends up being cheaper.


Electric buses have already been invented, opening a window to a possible solution. An example of these buses is the BYD eBus, which have already been tested in the two main cities of Spain (Madrid and Barcelona), having an excellent outcome. One of the main characteristics to highlight from this bus is their high autonomy due to their advanced technology in electric batteries. Their best advantage is the respect towards the environment as they are 100% electric vehicles with zero gas emissions, which is a key issue towards what the public transport systems around the world should be aiming to.

A sustainable way of producing the electric energy, for theses buses, is through renewable resources. The island has already renewable energies working, but in a small scale. Although one of its neighbor islands (El Hierro) is near to managing a 100% dependency in renewable energies. Tenerife could try to incorporate this project, providing to the transport service the energy needed without affecting climate change.

The project developed in El Hierro involves the installation of a hydroelectric power plant and a wind farm interconnected.  This system is expected to achieve annual savings of 18,700 tones of CO2 and 1.8 million euros for the 40,000 barrels of petrol that they won´t purchase anymore.


If this project was introduced in Tenerife, not only public transport problems would be solved, but also most of the energy consumption of the island, which is highly dependent in the refinery.  At the beginning of introducing this energy source in the service of public transport prices might rise, but in the long-term stability on the prices could be ensured, as the renewables are an inexhaustible sources of energy, preventing volatility in prices.

On the other hand, to solve the problem of bus schedules, a similar concept as the BRT (Bus Rapid Transits), which was for the first time developed in Brazil, could be introduced in the island. It has been demonstrated that this type of systems, integrated by buses, can have functions and services similar to those provide by rail systems, as well as producing a lower impact on the environment. This kind of system with independent road networks is able to transport a high number of people per hour (e.g. TransMilienio in Bogota transports 20.000 travellers per hour). It is also important to underline that we would also be aiming to improve the travelling methods of people, targeting for an eco-movement of citizens within the island, trying to reach the goal of a reduction on car use. It is important to state that the system would have to be introduced at a much smaller scale because of the dimension of the island.

Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

(video: example of BRT)

Bus lanes could be created with the aim of only having this vehicles circulating on this rails, providing a fixed schedule, which buses will be able to attend avoiding the typical traffic jams. With this new system, the public transport in Tenerife will be more efficient and able to attend citizen’s demand.  The cost of creating this system would be much more cost-efficient than the project of the train that they want to introduce in the island, as well as a more sustainable.

Improved Tourist sector

All this changes that we have proposed could create a better image of the island and also it would increase its sustainability. The reduction in traffic congestion generated with a satisfactory implementation of this system would make the preference for public transport increase between the citizens, making the percentage in this type of transport increase.

The investment needed at the beginning of the project would be very high but it would stimulate the tertiary sector, having a better outcome, with higher profits from this field.


Warsaw Climate Change Conference 2013


The 11 of November, Climate Change Conference began with a real impact on the members,Typhoon Haiyan had devastated the Philippines.

Since 1995, the UN gathers together to try and solve climate change problems, which are no longer a secondary issue. The big deal around climate change, right now, is the possibility of reaching 2C0 more on global temperature, which could cause such big problems in the climate that there are high possibilities of being unable to turn back, and try and amend the situation.


COP19 has given poor solutions for the next coming period. Despite the poor result, there were two  issues of great interest undertaken during this conference:  funds for loss and damages on vulnerable countries and the progress in The Durban Platform.

Countries like the US were reluctant to the approval of the loss and damage mechanism, because of the possible claims of developing countries. They proposed to include them under the existing climate adaptation measures of the UN, although vulnerable nations argued that some of their climate impacts cannot be situated under this wing. Finally the “Warsaw International mechanism” was created under the UNFCCC but with no clear mechanism on how it will be funded.

On the other hand, the Durban Platform, which tried to set the path for the creation of a new Kyoto Protocol in Paris 2015, was concentrated in the process of meeting deadlines. Being the Ad Hoc Working Group of the Durban Platform (ADP) the responsible for its development. This program will be applicable to both developed and developing countries, although they will have different levels of commitment. Hence being a controversial issue.

Parties asked for a flexible and adjustable agreement for every country, trying to keep building over the Kyoto Protocol. There was a request on part of the countries to prepare national contributions information for April 2015 and on those more developed (that are able to anticipate) for early 2014. Finally, this agreement was diluted within the talking’s around “commitment” towards “contribution” because of a last minute petition from India.

The future?

Until now the Warsaw International mechanism have only been words, there has not been any real commitment. Deliberations in Peru 2014 around the funding will be crucial.

On the Durban Platform decision should be made as quick as possible. Paris 2015 is just around the corner; we have 2 years from now to break barriers between the developed and developing world and move towards a common ground in Climate Change. If not the big target of not increasing the earth´s temperature in 2 C0 will be difficult to be met…making ourselves question such as: Will we have a future?


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