Loving a Job = Success

Looking for a job? Nowadays, most of us aim at working in a popular multinational corporations which is well known by our family members, friends, and colleagues… But is that our best choice or should we consider other options?

Small Medium Enterprises are sometimes underestimated due to the number of workers they enclose. Nonetheless, they offer a wide range of positive features that one must consider when searching for a job. Flexibility is a characteristic of SMEs which enables the company to act and response quickly to any external or internal challenge. But not only this, employees´ responsibilities can also be flexible allowing them to expand beyond his or her own job duties. Hence,  giving them the possibility to to grow their potential while positively contributing to the  prosperity of the business.

In addition, the structure of SMEs allows team work.  It is not rare that in big companies two people working in different departments do not ever meet while working for the business. In small medium enterprises,  the story seems completely different. Team work is encouraged and the engagement of the employees is advocated. It is also reckoned that such enterprises tend to take care of their employees while appraising their performances. The reason why, is merely because the success of the enterprise is to great extent based on the personal success of its workers. Therefore, employees could be seen as the greatest assets, as mentioned by Mulcahy.


Only with the dedication and determination of the  employees, the enterprise can succeed and generate value not only for the shareholders but for the rest of parties involved. Therefore, it is essential to provide an environment that takes under consideration the well being of the employees. This does not mean having a confortable physical space, but a work environment where the employees are actively asked about their work load and their flexibility of their schedules.

Considering the social aspects is or should be the responsibility of a business and more commonly this is  not only being addressed in Small medium enterprises but fostered.

So, have you changed your mind?

 

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Business or Philanthropy?- Just Social Entrepreneurship!

Perseverance, Inspiration, Passion and Innovation are just some of the perfect characteristics of social entrepreneurs. Being a social entrepreneur is having the burning desire to have a positive impact in society.  It is about having a vision in life and being willing to act. Failures are part of our lives. Nonetheless, the challenge is to overcome such failures without giving up. That is what social entrepreneurs do. They believe that if Plan A fails there are may other letters in the alphabet!

We, as individuals, always see the impossibility where there is potential. Only after one person achieves a goal which in the first run was seen as unattainable, we start considering its viability. We tend to wait for someone to take the first step. Social entrepreneurs do not wait, they just come out on to the field and play.

It is time for change. But this change starts in our minds and in our behavior. All of us have to be change in order to be able to see the world changing. So, let´s take the opportunity  that we are being given to think about solutions to tackle today´s social problems.It is true that many agencies are already addressing and are in charge of the most vulnerable part of  society. But we can not stand with our arms crossed. We have to act and we have the ability to do it.

Altruism is fantastic but we need to earn a living. Finance is not the prime objective but let´s be realistic.  So, why not using businesses as a tool to have an indelible and enduring print in society?

 

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Talking about China

China, what an unknown and diverse country… When I first arrived there on the second of March, the contrast was that big that it was difficult to realize that China was part of the world we live in. I had some preconceived ideas on this country which I posted two weeks ago on this blog, nonetheless, i have to admit  that one must “live it to tell about it”.

After visiting some utilities in China such as Volkswagen  and Mondragón group among others, I was able to draw some common insights and conclusions. All these enterprises recognized the fact that the cost of production in China was indeed much cheaper than producing in their country of origin. Nevertheless, they confirmed that this trend was changing as a result of two main adjustments in government policies. China is starting to move towards a model of production where quality control is starting to become significant.  But also, the country is taking much into account the salaries of the workers with a significant increase in their wages.

Counterfeiting is also considered to be a big issue in China. Even though in some industries this phenomenon tends to happen more easily than in others,  it needs to be said that companies settled in China are always alert and cautious in this regards. For instance, in Mann Hummel Filters, it was highlighted the fact that scrutinizing the products in much detail was  the company´s usual practice when trying to  avoid counterfeiting.

When it comes to the lectures we had in Jiao Tong University, to learn the Chinese culture, values and history helped me better understand the way businesses are made in China. During the first lecture I learned that China needs to be considered as a continent instead of as a country merely because it is so diverse. In the East part of China is concentrated  most of the economic activity as opposed to the West where still business opportunities are not being exploited. Nonetheless, it seems that in the next years this region of China will flourish.

Guanchi was a key word during the entire study trip and it was repeated during the different lectures as well as visits. Having the perfect partner in China is essential when doing business. It is important to work on your long term relationship to succeed.

Mianxi and the concept of face was also another concept that cannot be avoided. It could be described as a combination of honor, reputation, social standing and influence. In China gaining and losing face is considered to be a serious business.

Luxury goods are connected to the concept of face as well. It seems that to certain extent it is  all about showing off. If you have an Audi you will be more prone on getting your business done than if you have a Golf.  Why?  Merely because you will be seen as trustworthy with the necessary money to develop the business.


In my opinion, Joint Ventures are the best option when doing business in China even though other alternatives can be found. After listening to different lectures i have come to the conclusion that it seems the easiest way to penetrate into the Chinese market.

Marketing is also essential to market penetration. It is very important to know what the values and the culture of the Chinese is in order to be able to understand them and to start  doing business with them. It is important to adapt instead of trying to change it. The example of the Melia Group illustrates such situation. What is more, it is important to evaluate who your target is in order to be able to adjust to the “needs” of the Chinese.

To conclude, with Fernando and Marc, we saw how entrepreneurship was priced within China. It is about hard work and responsibility. It is about trying to explore a new world full of opportunities. China is just China and  without any doubt this country is the country.


 

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A Child bearing a Child



Her name is Nabena. She is just 15 years old and she already has a child. She was forced to get married and as a result she had to drop out of school. For Nabena, motherhood was the end of her education and the beginning of a struggle to earn a living for her child.

Nabena is just a child bearing another child. Life for her has been far from easy, but she still can be seen as blessed young girl given the fact that both she and her child survived during the birth.  It is estimated by the WFP that around half of all pregnant women in developing countries are anaemic causing around 110,000 deaths during child birth each year.

She is from Malawi, home to almost 7 million children. This landlocked agricultural country has ranked since the 1990s among the top 20 least developing countries according to the Human Development Index. One in every five Malawians lives in extreme poverty with less than $0.20 a day. Poverty therefore threatens the most fundamental rights of children who account for 51% of the country´s population.

Amongst children malnutrition is catastrophic and it is the most powerful contributor to child mortality. Even though several programs have been implemented aiming at improving the living conditions of children, no change has been made in regards to the children´s nutritional status since 1992.

It is widely known that the causes of malnutrition are numerous  and interrelated. Poor childcare practices, lack of access to nutrients and the appearance of some chronic diseases are just some examples. But what is the role of women in fighting this tremendous challenge?

“They have a crucial role to play in defeating hunger. As mothers, farmers, teachers and entrepreneurs, they hold the key to building a future free of malnutrition.” (WFP)

For this reason, education and more specifically women´s education should be seen as one of the most important tools for combating malnutrition. There is evidence that shows that there is a strong link between educated women and reduction in child mortality. Educated women are prone to immunize their children as well as to improve their nutritional status.  If they are aware of the best feeding practices, malnutrition among their children should experience a decrease.

In fact, one study showed that women’s education contributed to 43% of the reduction in child malnutrition over time, while food availability accounted only for 26%. Therefore, it is extremely important to consider the role that women play in determining the well being of their children. More attention should be given to women´s empowerment  and education in countries such as Malawi where women are constantly being deprived of their right to education due to pregnancy and marriage.

 

 

 

 

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A step towards the unknown

In a few days I will be landing in the land of business opportunities. A country, which is nowadays discussed pretty often in the news, but for me, is still unexplored.I can forecast in advance that in order to avoid misunderstandings while being there, spending some time studying the Chinese cultural and social values is from my point of view crucial when considering doing business with the Chinese community.

I also suppose that having a reference in China appears to be essential when trying to do business there. This is linked to the aforementioned point. Since we are not experts, having some locals who can guide us as well as introduce us in the market more easily and efficiently is also something that I think is important.

It would also be interesting to adjust to the Chinese tastes when trying to sell a product or a service. I think it is important to contextualise. Even though some products may be sold pretty easily in Europe or in the United States, it is far from clear whether they will do it in China.  So, maybe when doing business there one should adapt their products or services to the culture, history and tastes of the Chinese society.

Trust should also be taken into account when doing business. Working on relationships is an important aspect if you want your business outcome to be positive. It may take time and sometimes money but if you are not keen on building a trustworthy and long-term business relationship it is far from clear whether you will actually end up succeeding.

I also believe that they are based on a rather hierarchical society due to Confucianism. The treatment may vary depending on your age, education and position. Therefore, I am expecting to find preferential treatment depending on the characteristics mentioned above. Once you know this, it is essential not to feel disrespected or undervalued. It is hence essential to contextualize.

My last point is related to the dressing code. Even though clothing is so internationalized in the business arena if one has to adapt to the Chinese culture, I am assuming that the business attire should be rather conservative without any type of clothing that could be considered to be revealing. This may sound irrelevant at a first glance. But the first impression in business is something that I consider important.

All these aforementioned variables should be taken into consideration when trying to acclimatize oneself to a Chinese business domain.  Nevertheless, I am excited to see whether my preconceived ideas match the reality and what I can end up getting from this new experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Afghan Pamir: how people´s participation can help to alleviate the problem of natural resource management.

Participatory groups within rural communities are considered to be central to equitable and sustainable solutions to local development problems. Coordinating activities can be more effective in regards to managing resources as opposed to individuals trying to tackle the problem on their own. The example of the natural resource management in the region of the Afghan Pamir can be seen as a clear illustration of how people´s participation can help to alleviate the problem of natural resource management.

It seems that people should be at the centre of any type of initiative and local solutions should be implemented for local people. It is also important to take into consideration the fact that no conservation activity should be implemented if the social costs are not initially evaluated, especially in this region where poverty plays a significant role.

The Afghan Pamir is one of the most beautiful and biodiverse places in central Asia, where the legendary Marco Polo sheep can be encountered along with other animals such as the Snow Leopard.

During centuries, natives in the region of the Pamir have been confronted for the acquisition of natural resources and their development status was considered to be very backward due to their poor health, educational as well as economic conditions.  In the late 1980s, the environmentalist association, Save (Society for Afghanistan Volunteer Environmentalists) decided to contribute to the development of this area by implementing a program related to the conservation of natural resources. Before SAVE´s existence, the shooting to any animal was the normal practice and the use of natural resources was done very inefficiently. For instance, the pelts from the snow leopard were sold at a very low prince. No law directed to protecting the biodiversity was at that time implemented in that region of Asia.

This organization introduced the idea of sustainable resource management. They started to work with people in the area hence centering their attention in human beings and education. Local people, elders, influential as well as governmental actors became interested in the issue after much effort and communication. SAVE worked on explaining what the consequences of a loss in biodiversity could mean for them.  Due to the fact that SAVE promoted cooperation at different levels; between local people, and authorities, the government became mobilized and laws started to be drafted to protect the environment.

People were holding responsible and committed to the well management of their resources. They started to implement learned techniques of hunting and of using natural resources in a sustainable manner. Therefore, they were directly involved in the process of managing their resources.

This initiative had a positive impact in the resource management of the communities since hunting was reduced, people became aware of the resources, and ecotourism in the area was enhanced through the regulation of hunting. This affected the lives of people living in the communities since the revenue generated from tourism activities helped to improve their livelihood. Educational, health and other services started to be offered.  Therefore, from this case, it can be said that the conservation of biodiversity from a human centred approach has actually helped to the both the conservation of biodiversity and to the socio economic development.



Sources:

http://www.akdn.org/publications/2010_akf_wakhan.pdf

http://srdis.ciesin.columbia.edu

www.worlbank.org

 

 

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The precautionary principle & the problem of social equity

The precautionary principle is often used to secure the management of natural resources. When scientific knowledge and uncertainty prevails it is recommended to implement this approach in order to avoid hazardous effects on the environment as well as to reduce risk. It appears to be a guide for decision makers to take effective decisions on natural resource conservation and management and to consider intergenerational as well as intergenerational outcomes of resource exploitation. Nevertheless, due to the fact that uncertainty prevails, decisions can be taken favouring one party and causing detrimental effects. Hence, the misuse of this principle, either because of ignorance or due to hidden motivations, has often contributed to the deterioration of its legitimacy.

Even though this concept was created “in parallel” with the concept of sustainable development it is far from clear whether it fosters its promotion at all times.  It is essential to bear in mind the fact that the consequences of implementing the precautionary principle may not be equally distributed. This means that the poor may be the most affected by the application of this principle as opposed to the more powerful. A wide range of enterprises aimed at making profit have been interrupted as a result of the implementation of the precautionary principle. Hence, the use of the precautionary principle has helped to cut down their activities, reducing their possible future environmental impact. Nonetheless, it needs to be taken into account that such type of organizations are well equipped to deal with the problems that may spurn in relation with this principle.

The problem comes when the application of this concept results in social costs exacerbating the already existing social inequalities. In the developing world, and especially the rural poor are extremely dependent on natural resources. These people often are the ones bearing the costs of the implementation of conservation strategies under the umbrella of the precautionary principle. Economic losses, economic opportunities, land resources, and a restriction in their livelihoods options are examples of some of the burdens that they have to be facing.

Therefore, a study should be made before implementing this principle in relation to who bears costs and who gains benefits. In order for the precautionary principle to contribute to the sustainable management of natural resources and not to be considered as an obstacle for achieving sustainable development, special attention should be drawn to the fact of who can afford it. This hence implies value judgments, which may be seen as problematic and not equitable for some.

This is challenging merely because policy makers often misunderstand the value of natural resources and the conservation of biodiversity. When trying to promote the development of a country, community or area, to foster growth they tend to follow policies that end up causing severe social and environmental costs that in principle were trying to avoid.  For this reason, it is essential to settle some clearer guidelines on how and when this principle should be implemented.

Sources:

http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/PGC-002.pdf

http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w1238E/W1238E01.htm#ch1.1.4

http://www.environmentalcommons.org/staging/precaution-debating.pdf

 

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The Eucalyptus in Galicia and its impacts

Trees such as the “Castanea sativa” considered to be emblematically Galician were actually imported by the Romans. Hence, the term “indigenous” is relative. Instead of depending on scientific knowledge it sometimes relies on the memory of society as my grandfather used to say. He studied Forestry Engineer and his passion was transmitted to his grandchildren with plenty of stories and projects. One common subject was the plantation of the Eucalyptus in Galicia and its impact.

The Eucalyptus was introduced in Galicia by Father Salvado in the mid-nineties as a private initiative. Nevertheless, the government afterwards implemented a policy, which favoured the plantation of this now controversial tree. Why controversial?

Based on generalization it should be said that the eucalyptus is seen as a threat to ecosystems. It has been seen as a tree that impoverishes the soil, water as well as the fauna even when planted in non-cultivated areas. Even some countries have actually prohibited the plantation of eucalyptus. Nonetheless, one should be careful to make this vast simplification. According to the FAO, there is no universal answer on whether the plantation of this tree implies positive or negative effects.

Therefore, a balance of costs and social benefits should be made. What is the situation in Galicia?

The productivity or profitability of the Eucalyptus in Galicia is high (hectare/year).  Under the same conditions, this tree tends to multiply an indigenous tree productivity by 15. This implies that the eucalyptus´cutting periods are from 12 to 20 years; a luxury compared to the so-called indigenous species. This implies saving in time and money in regards to reforestation. What is more, it needs to be taken into account that fire favours its reproduction; hence, this tree helps to balance the impact of fires. Nonetheless, the eucalyptus has some negative impacts on the environment, which are also interlinked to the social aspects.

The eucalyptus used to enhance the socio-economic development of rural Galicia by providing the land workers with the advantages of wood. Nonetheless, the situation has changed. Now, the logging companies control the market lowering the prices of wood.  As a consequence, the countrymen try to exploit the Eucalyptus as much as they can. Due to this intensive exploitation, forests are neither able to achieve their climax nor the conservation of the ecosystem is maintained.  Hence, the negative impact on the environment increases while the social benefit decreases.

Therefore, the conclusion we could draw from this, is that reforestation is not as simple as it can be seen. It is not about tree planting since choosing the right specie as well as counterbalancing both the social and the ecological implications becomes a challenge.

 

 

 

 

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Black Gold in Nigeria

Oil is black gold. Oil is power. But oil is also a tangible representation of corruption, poverty, inequality and violence in a vast number of countries around the globe. We, “the so-called developed world” do not suffer from the most direct negative repercussions that oil may have. Instead, we benefit from oil as a motor for the constant industrialization of our countries. Having electricity in our houses, driving on suitable roads and streets, being warm during wintertime are luxuries that we have come to expect. We rarely question where these services or commodities come from and what implications are spurned from us having them. The time has come for us to finally think about this issue. After visiting and living in different countries I started to appreciate things that at home I used to take for granted. I became interested in the living conditions of other people who did not have the same possibilities as I did. This combined with my studies and my close relationship with a woman from Nigeria at my university inspired me to learn more about the phenomenon called the “Resource Curse”.

Nigeria is the eighth largest oil producing country in the world. Nevertheless, it is a country where poverty and inequality play an important role. The discovery of this profitable resource in 1956 was supposed to be a blessing for the development of the country. However, the transition from an agricultural to an oil dependent economy has rather proved to be a curse for the development of oil rich Nigeria (Karl 2007:27).

Nigeria´s oil accounts for a large share of the country´s GDP, 95% of its exports earnings and over 80% of the government´s income. Nevertheless, the revenues coming from oil extraction practices do not reach the majority of the population. Instead, the country boasts some of the poorest communities in the African continent (Karl 2007:27).

The Niger Delta region suffers from “administrative neglect, crumbling social infrastructure and services, high unemployment, social deprivation, abject poverty, filth and squalor, and endemic conflict ” as claimed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP, Niger Delta Human Development Report, 2006:78).The detrimental social and political impacts accentuated by the resource curse cannot be ignored since they hinder the prosperity of the country. Nonetheless, attention should be drawn on the damaging environmental consequences of oil extraction. The southern area of Nigeria is one of the most impacted ecosystems on planet earth. It has been claimed by Amnesty International that over the last half decade almost thirteen million barrels of oil have been spilt causing severe impacts on the environment (Amnesty International 2009:1).

Why should we respect nature instead of focusing on local communities? The lack of respect for the environment threatens the survival of hundreds of millions of locals. Over two thirds of the population in this region are dependent on nature. Agricultural practices and fishing are considered to be their traditional livelihoods. Therefore, when soil, water and air is polluted due to numerous oil spills, waste dumping and gas flaring, the lives of millions of Nigerians are affected and their human rights are being violated. Diseases and poor health conditions make this situation more difficult and the challenges of this situation are heightened by the lack of access to water, making this resource rich region the least desirable place to live (The Curse of Nigerian Oil 2009:1).

So, what comes first? In development studies, it is often questioned whether alleviation of poverty should be a prerequisite for environmental protection or the other way around. The interconnection between both concepts becomes evident in the case of Nigeria, but what path should be followed?  The need to preserve the environment in order to foster development in the region seems to be the very imminent priority. If damage endures and the environment is not properly and sustainably protected, poverty will persist and human rights will continue to be violated.

Natural resources have therefore proved to be more of a curse than a blessing to resource rich countries. Countries endowed with oil and other natural resources have performed worse in developmental terms, in comparison to countries with fewer or no natural resources. Instead of contributing to development, oil-producing communities have experienced more underdevelopment than their non-producing counterparts (Taylor 2010:135).

But… Shouldn´t we take into account the colonial legacy of the country? What about the corrupted practices on part of the government? Was the extractive industry performing well? Therefore the question is; Is oil the one to be blamed?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

  • Amnesty International. (2009). Nigeria’s oil pollution stark example of resource curse. Amnesty International Library. Available at: www.amnesty.org
  • Karl,T. (2007). Oil-Led Development:Social, Political, and Economic Consequences. Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.Available at: http://cddrl.stanford.edu
  • Niger Delta Human Development Report, 2006. (2006). Available at: http://web.ng.undp.org/reports/nigeria_hdr_report.pdf
  • Taylor,I. (2010). The International Relations of Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Continuum.
  • The Curse of Nigerian Oil. (2009).BBC News. Available at: news.bbc.co.uk

 

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Slumming in Paradise



 

 

 

Introduction and Demographics

As you may know, Santo Domingo is the capital of a paradisiac Island located at the heart of the Caribbean; The Dominican Republic. In the last years the country has suffered a massive population shift from the rural areas to the urban centres having an impact in the urban development of the capital. Even though censoring is still considered to be a challenge for the country´s administration, it could be said that the capital city has 3 million inhabitants loose. This means that almost one third of the country´s population live within the limits of the capital city.

Among the city´s inhabitants, 65% live in urban slums occupying only a 19% of the city land. Population growth in these marginalised neighbourhoods accounts for 10% while the capital city as a whole is growing at a 6.5 rate. Therefore, a significant increase in the number of slums can be seen in the capital of the Dominican Republic. This is undoubtedly considered to be a major challenge for the urban development of Santo Domingo.  For this reason, the problem of slums needs to be addressed since it is directly linked to other poverty related issues.

Challenge

Slums are seen as a failure of urban city planning as well as a result of poor policies. This means that slums are a consequence or a result of a lack of attention towards human basic needs on part of the government. In Santo Domingo, there are some neighbourhoods such as Los Guaricanos, Herrera and La Barquita among others, where slums are the common landscape. These areas are characterised as being violent and unstable, since the urban poor living under these conditions have nothing to lose. In addition, Dominicans living in slums do not have the necessary infrastructures providing them with sanitation and water. These two basic services are considered to be a main problem in slums having severe consequences in the inhabitants. A vast number of children are continuously at risk of health related problems. Therefore, uncertainty in these areas prevails.

From a more technical perspective, the structure of the slums is not considered to be specially consistent and adequate. Particularly, in Santo Domingo, where climate plays an important role, houses should be adapted to weather conditions and they should be built in areas where the probability of a flood or of a landslide is low. Nevertheless, if you analyze the location of slums in Santo Domingo, you could observe that a great amount are built in highly insecure and vulnerable areas. Therefore, slums in Santo Domingo should be improved and start to be seen as an integral part of the city instead of being treated as a separate part of the urban development of the capital.

Solution

Upgrading slums in this paradise is therefore a priority. It is important that this process confers a benefit to the most direct stakeholders; the urban poor. For this reason, voices as well as concerns need to be heard. A social and political platform pushing for their needs could be implemented following already existing models. In South Africa, India and Brazil, a project is being put into practice by the IBSA Working Group on Human Settlements. The main aim is to improve the living standards of 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. This project counts with a platform aimed at helping the three countries to learn from each other’s experiences and to have a constant discussion. A direct transfer of Knowledge is being made hence enhancing South–South cooperation. The Dominican Republic and specifically Santo Domingo could therefore draw lessons from this platform and learn from experiences and policies put in place in developing countries where also slumming is a major issue.

Apart from the social and political platform, the project introduces the concept of prefabricated houses as a form of upgrading slums from a more urban and technical point of view.  Modular prefabricated houses seem to be the solution to reducing inequalities in urban cities. These houses take under consideration the communities’ needs and are considered to be adjustable to accommodate a family.

What is more,  they would serve as a barrier to weather conditions such as humidity and heat as well as to insects. This is considered of crucial importance in Santo Domingo since Dengue and Malaria are still frequent diseases. Blocks tend to be light and cheap as well as recyclable. Hence, this has benefits in both monetary and environmental terms for both the urban poor, the environment and the government.

Prefabricated houses therefore seem to be an appealing solution to the problem of slums with a wide range of advantages. Nevertheless, it is essential to integrate the idea of slum upgrading in the production sector of the economy in order to make the project more feasible. In the Dominican Republic there is an association, which deals with the country´s construction sector, namely the Asociacion Dominicana de Constructores y Promotores de Vivienda. Through this association, construction as well as material companies such as Metaldom or Sinercon could be introduced in the production phase. These Dominican companies by being involved in the project could therefore contribute to the development of the country.

The labour force could be provided by the communities affected. By employing the urban poor,  these people would be keener on being involved in the project but also capacity building would be enhanced by allowing these part of society to learn and to contribute to the construction of their own houses. Socio-economic development will also be promoted. The population being employed would contribute to the rising of the sector. This is considered to be crucial since Dominicans do actually need to have a reason to be proud of.

Therefore, a common benefit could be seen in the city of Santo Domingo. The government would be seen as accountable for addressing urban planning demands, the urban poor would be considered as an integrated part of society and the private sector would participate in the socio-economic development of the country.

Sports

The temperature as well as the sunny year-round climate makes the island ideal for practicing sports. One cannot talk about the Dominican Republic without talking about baseball. After the American league, the Dominican baseball league is the most important. Almost 500 players are members of American baseball teams. Therefore, a major baseball event held in Santo Domingo could be an excuse to develop the aforementioned urban planning scheme able to cope with the challenges of the capital city.  Jose Alberto Pujols, a famous Dominican Baseball player coming from an difficult area of Santo Domingo named Cristo Rey, could take the lead and be a push for the project by sharing his life experiences.  Seeing him as a national idol who has faced urban challenges could actually  be a motivation and a driving factor to develop this new urban plan.

 

 

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