Millenium Development Goals Analysis: Sub-Saharan Africa

The Millenium Development Goals is being led by the United Nations Development Programme which is a solution-oriented, knowledge-based development organization. It conforms a development network advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people have a beter life.

Analyzing Sub-Saharan Performance toward the goal:

Goal 1:Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Sustained growth in developing countries, particularly in Asia, is keeping the world on track to meet the poverty-reduction target.

Sub-Saharan Africa had in 1990, 58% of its population living on less than $1.25 a day. In 2005 this number has decreased to 51%. There is a lot more to do to eliminate extreme poverty.

Projections say that by 2015, based on economic growth performance and forecasted trends, extreme poverty rate in this region is expected to fall below 36%.

In most countries the economic recovery has failed to translate into employment opportunities. In sub-Saharan countries, in a decade the employment-to-population ratio has only increased 1% from 2000 to 2010.

 

 

In most countries, progress in reducing vulnerable employment remained stocked after the economic crisis. Sub-Saharan countries suffered drop-back in vulnerability employment just after the crisis, being in 80% at 1999, 75% in 2008 and 76% in 2009.

 

 

Another target is to halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, between 1990 and 2015.

Dispite the reductions in poverty, the percentage of people going hungry has stabilized at 16% in the past decade.

 

Based on current trends, sub-Saharan Africa will be unable to meet the hunger-reduction target by 2015.

Nearly a quarter of children under five in the developing world remain undernourished. Sub-Saharan being the second zone with the highest rate just after Southern Asia. This period is from 1990 until 2009. Again there is long path to follow.

 

 

Goal 2: Achive universal education

The target is to ensure that by 2015, every children is able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

Sub-Saharan Africa has the best record for improvement in primary school enrolment. From 1998 to 2008 enrolment increased almost 20%.

 

 

Being poor, female or living in a conflict zone increases the probability that a child will be out of school.

The majority of children who are out of school in sub-Saharan Africa will never enter a classroom.

 

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women.

The target is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of educations no later than 2015.

In primary, secondary and tertiary education, Sub-Saharan Africa poses an 92%, 79% and 63% respectively, of girls to boys enrolment ratio.  All are well behind the goal of 100% parity.

There are also wide gaps in women´s access to paid work in at least half of all regions. Sub-Saharan Africa had a 33% in 2009 and is expected to get to 36% in 2015.

Regarding representation y women in parliament, Sub-Saharan zone has a surprisingly high ratio when compared to developed regions. The percentage has increase from 13% to 20%.

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

The target is to reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate.

Sub-Saharan Africa countries are the ones with the highest mortality rate of under-five children. By 2009, they had 129 death per 1000 live births, whereas the developing regions had an average of 66 deaths per 1000 deaths. The goal seems very far away.

 

 

There is also a clear notion that children in rural areas are more at risk of dying, even if they are on regions of low child mortality.

Another crucial data is whether or not children come from a poor household and whether or not the mother had a secondary or primary education at least. For sub-Saharan countries, coming from a poor household signifies almost twice the risk of children mortality under-five with a 1.8 ratio. While in terms of mothers´ education, having no education doubles the risk of child mortality under five years compared to a mother with secondary education. A 1.2 ration can be found when compared instead to a mother with primary education.

 

Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health

The target is to reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.

Despite progress, pregnancy remains a major health risk for women. Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the region with the highest maternal deaths per 100000 deaths having, by 2008, 640 deaths. This doubles the number of the preceding region, Southern Asia, with 280 deaths. The goal is set around 200, so  this region is very behind in this sense.

This mostly is due to the lack attended deliveries by skilled health personnel. Sub-Saharan region only experiences 46% of deliveries correctly attended by 2009.

Anoter target is to achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.

Only about half the pregnant women in Sub-Saharan countries get the recommended frequency of care during pregnancy. Also, adolescent pregnancies have stalled in this region since 1990. Around 122-123 births per 1000 were from women aged between 15-19.

At the same time this region experiences the least use of contraception methods among women. Aged 15-49, with 22%.

 

Goal 6: Combat AIDS, malaria and other diseases.

The target is to have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of AIDS.

Sub-Saharan Africa is leading a general declining in infections, although they are still the region with highest incidence of 0.4 among 100 people.

More children orphaned by AIDS in sub-Saharian Africa are now in school, increasing their chances of receiving vital protection and support.

Another target is to achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV for all those who need it.

By 2009 only 37% of the population living with AIDS received treatment.

Finally, other target was to have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

In this regards, intensive control efforts have cut deaths from malaria by 20 per cent, with major advances in hard-hit African countries.

The use of mosquito nets in Africa is rising rapidly, with lifesaving benefits for children.

More African children are receiving the recommended medicines for malaria, but accurate diagnosis remains critical.

 

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

The target is to integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

In Africa and South America the forests are disappearing rapidly.

Other target is to reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.

One more target is to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

Sub-Saharan countries are the ones with the smallest proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility, with around 31% and it should have arrived to a 64%.

 

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development

One of the targets has been to deal comprehensively with developing countries debt.

In this sense, A sharp drop in exports in 2009 interrupted the downward trend of developing countries’ debt service ratios.

 

 

Another target is to cooperate to make available the benefits of the new technologies, especially information and communications where there is a lot to do.

As we have seen Sub-Saharan Africa is probably region of the world that is more far behind in terms of meeting the MDG plan. And also because of this, it is the region of the world who needs the most help and rapid solutions to their problems. Although many of these objectives will not be accomplished by 2015, it is very important to keep this great effort and continue unite forces to help the most vulnerable societies.

 

 



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