Blogging vs. Books

I never thought as blogging as a legitimate way of writing. However, living in the 21rst century and this globalized technological evolution I am revaluing its importance to spread ideas. I think my pessimism was rooted in the fact I hate to see the prints dying and newspapers struggling. I like books and hope blogging does not replace formal writing. I think blogging is great for a quick thought but hope that authors do not stop flushing out ideas over time and developing quality pieces of writing. I hope blogging can spread the word, hopefully not at the cost of books.


Social Entrepreneurship

Key Learnings: Social Entrepreneurship for Development

We were all well versed with Muhammad Yunus and his revolution of the Grameen Bank. This microfinance institution is the first example that comes to mind when you think of social entrepreneurship (SE). In this class however, we found unique insight into various other brilliant social entrepreneur’s projects and missions. The value of social entrepreneurship is that it reaches people and empowers and builds capacity in order to drive development. SE is increasingly important and is greatly needed for it creates social, environmental and economic values for development. It provides employment development, innovation seen in new goods and services, social capital and equity promotion. Social enterprises are positive changing agents that through innovation are meeting the needs of society.

In this new globalized world we have seen philanthropic and governmental efforts have fallen short of addressing the needs of the people. SE combines and pulls from various aspects Diego Guidi stated SE draws on our passions, as Mike Feerick said it utilizes our business like minds and as Daniel Turan said it drives our humanity. Social entrepreneurs have been around forever however the term is being built off of the rise of innovative not for profit ventures to enhance societal value. The term “entrepreneur,” is French meaning someone who undertakes a significant project or activity. In the 20th century Joseph Schumpeter a well-known economist believes entrepreneurs are innovators who drive creative destructive process. (http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Schumpeter.html) These terms are attractive because they can be applied to both the business and the social sector of entrepreneurship.
Both ideas are becoming more and more entwined as sectors are growing towards an open innovation forum where missions and goals are becoming overlapped. However, business still means money and for SE the mission is explicitly social. Markets judge businesses and markets fail to value social improvements, public’s goods and harms and the benefits seen among a society.( This relates to my blog Why GDP fails) The idea of SE that I take away from these classes is that SE is a mechanism for development that has a positive impact on the society by either:
• Meeting a gap unfilled by NGOs or Govt., any gap that needs filling
• Create and abide by a mission to sustain social value
• Adhering and collaborating with new agents and philosophies that serve their mission
• Continuous open innovation, adaptation (learning from mistakes and improving upon them)
• Acting boldly and fearlessly
• Being accountable and transparent in always upholding their mission

I was most impressed with Asowka’s organization that bolsters SE. We had the pleasure of skyping with Mike Feerick. Right off the bat you understood his values. He does not believe in excess wealth and believes that his assets, primarily his extreme intelligence are to benefit society and not to be manipulated for the sake of his portfolio. I went to an extremely expensive college. My tuition was a quarter of a million dollars and I think it is atrocious. First and foremost because, only those whom in which can afford the tuition are able to go but secondly, because I do not think education should be a luxury but a right. Mike pioneered Alison.com which provides free learning. He will graduate 100,000 students this year and to me is the greatest program we heard about. I myself will be signing up as soon as I complete my masters. Education is the tool for development. Feerick makes it accessible and affordable (free) for all, encouraging societies growth and development.
Diego Guidi, a social entrepreneurship and not unlike Daniel hold a certain personal that really hears people. Diego presented the devastating waste and pollution currently suffocating India. He gave examples of SE striving to make an impact and encouraged our own brand of blended value accounting. He wanted us to access and address the waste and push for an organizational mission that SE stand by. SE ranges from macro level interventions like that previously mentioned Grameen Bank to micro-level technological solutions to local market failures like the foot pump for agriculture irrigation in East Africa. SE uniquely manipulates available resources, institutions, and practices and creates new combinations to achieve impact.
I highly enjoyed the ideas and concepts presented in the SE classes. It struck a chord in me as it combines the passion to help society, a value in which has defined me in my life with a business like discipline that I acquired from my mother laced with innovation and new ideas. I believe all three principles and ideas are assets I have and hope to one day be a social entrepreneur.


CSR in SMEs take-aways

CSR in SMEs: Key Lessons Learnt from Daniel Turan
Daniel’s class was a great class because he portrayed CSR as to be happiness and wellbeing inside and outside of the workplace. His approach was exciting because it did not highlight the need for CSR but how CSR in SMEs is a mechanism for a better, happier business. We have learned and come to understand that businesses are under increased pressure to demonstrably engage in activities that bring increased value to the supply chain, environment, society and workplace. Corporate responsibility I believe is best defined as doing business the right way. Daniel made me believe that CSR goes above and beyond doing it the right way but Csr is doing business the best way. It goes beyond honest and ethical practices but is a mechanism to facilitate the best business practice and returns. A portrait of CSR related activities in SMEs were presented. We focused mostly on how workplace and societal csr activities can lead to a better business.
In employment we saw that csr activities invest in the people in-house. Companies through creative solutions to common complaints amongst employees developed places and activities for their employees such as places to take naps, places to play games and even places to get a massage. Companies also through employee questionnaires and dialogue were able to better understand the needs and desires of their employees. Other tools such as award-based incentives were motivation that led to better business. The encouragement of employees through newsletters, social events, awards and recognition for deeds well done, mentoring programs all left the employees feeling good about their job, eager to get to work in the morning and over all enhanced performance.
CSR in regards to business to business means that the businesses are upholding an ethical standard to take part in industry the best way they can. We have seen in other classes and touched on in Daniel’s class how careful management and understanding of the supply chain leads to better business. If the business is engaged with the suppliers and an element of trust is established then performance will be enhanced, guaranteeing better returns and less headaches. CSR in the environment is something that should be absolutely mandatory as we have but one planet and we are consuming it at a faster rate then we can replenish it. We know that SMEs can play their part as well. Not only can SMEs enforce the Iso14001 standard but they can encourage waste management, re-using and recycling schemes in their business model. Employees can be encouraged to switch their computers off at night. They can also come up with creative solutions to the original paper waste norm of an office. Enforcing green principles will better the society as a whole but also will give the employees pride in their company for doing their part.
CSR activities in the community and the society are very important for SMEs as they build brand awareness and bolster the brands image. Furthermore, csr activities can lead to increased market parameters. Working with local schools and the youth of the community is a sustainable practice that last into the future. Supporting through donations and sponsorship is great however, we saw the greatest impact companies made was when they got involved and volunteered. The community and society likes to see that the big wheel get out from behind his desk and get involved with the people. This kind of practice develops a social auditing who in which are the companies’ potential clients.
I will never ever stop eating and respecting Entenmann’s baked products. I remember being about 10 years old and was invited to a conference in Bayshore. Bayshore is an extremely poor community and had the reputation for being dangerous. I had hesitations however my mother did not she was well aware of Entenmann’s presence. Entenmann’s headquarters are located in the town of Bayshore. Entenmann’s takes every opportunity to enrich the community through sponsoring of such programs as I mentioned before as well as building entire arenas, providing books and scholarships, volunteer programs, open factory tours and the list goes on and on. It impressed me so much and still to this day the commitment Entenmann’s has to the community has touched my consumers heart. Entenmann’s completely changed the community in which it is established, crime rates plummeted, and college enrollment skyrocketed. Entenmann’s understands CSR.
Daniel motivated us all. He did an exercise to boost our self-confidence and in return we all are left with a warm feeling of his class. There are challenges to CSR in SMEs , getting employees involved, making the connections to the community, measuring the benefits. Yet, through successful engagement and dialogue CSR in SMEs or in large companies is the best idea for improving and enhancing ones business.


STOP FRACKING AROUND

What is hydraulic fracturing and is it environmentally sound?

1.) Immediate thoughts/uproar and contentions

The executive summary released by my country’s EPA begins with “Natural Gas plays a key role in our nation’s clean energy future.” I would prefer a statement such as: it is imperative that our country adopt renewable clean energy to meet the growing demands of our population. To me, the summary begins biased. Natural Gas does not need to play a key role, it is an option for our future energy needs and certainly not the best one. “Hydraulic fracturing brings environmental benefits,” pure poppycock, hogwash, doubtful, mcdoubtful! Yet, the US Environmental Protection Agency is obviously speaking for the heavy players in the U.S. congress of the natural gas industry.
The bottom of the second paragraph, you can find the non challant statement: “Many concerns about hydraulic fracturing center on potential risk to drinking water resources,” (2011) Meanwhile, Josh Fox’s sensational documentary debuted in 2010. Fox went cross country to reveal the secrets, lies, contamination and compromised health of locals exposed to fracking. If the public speaks they are not heard. Corporations shadow the public’s wants, desires, concerns and grievances. The EPA is being thwarted by the interest of the large portfolios of congress members and the absurd amount of money spent on lobbying by natural gas companies. In the third quarter alone natural gas spent 630,000 US dollars lobbying according to bussinessweek . Natural gas interest have spent more that 747 million dollars in the last ten years lobbying congress( just to really make you disgusted, ibitime writes that public campaigns reports 30 major us corporations spent an average of 400,000 dollars a day lobbying in their interest in congress) This “lobbying” concept has gone way to far and has pushed any public opinion far to the side if not off the field by big fortune 500 honchos. The EPA did not give an environmental assessment on fracking. The EPA issued a description of the environment, the project and the positive impact. The environmental assessment must be skewed because it asserts that is safe if done properly. How could this be? However, the public roared up and now the EPA is going to do another study on the impact of fracking. Finally, the EPA is assessing the potential relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources.
This youtube video is from the notorious fox news:
Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

EIA- FRACKING
The outline of an EIA assessment should be as follows:
A. Introduction
B Description of the Project
C. Description of the Environment
D. Alternatives – the alternative all other renewable energies, complete avoidance.
E. Anticipated Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
F. Economic Assessment – I do not want to even state because the economic gains are never worth destroying the environment. I believe that water is priceless so therefore the risk is too high with Natural Gas drilling.
G. Environmental Management Plan
H. Public Involvement and Disclosure- The public has caused considerable uproar. The public grievances has pushed the EPA to conduct extensive studies and reports on fracking. Several websites and activist are dedicating their lives to preventing fracking.
I. Conclusions

Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

Introduction/ Description of Fracking

The purpose of this report is to report on hydraulic fracturing. (HF) Over nine million people living in New York rely on the clean, unfiltered drinking water from the Croton, Catskill, and Delaware watersheds. The extensive system, the largest in the world carries 1.2 billion gallons of water everyday from 19 upstate reservoirs. The drilling in NY has been delayed due to public uproar and their concerns for the impact on their drinking water. “The Independent Oil and Gas Association of New York, which represents more than 400 individuals and businesses in the industry, argues that the restrictions need to be eased so as not to limit development of gas wells and the economic benefits it says will result.” ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/12/nyregion/new-york-rules-on-hydrofracking-get-20000-comments.html?_r=2) It’s importance is subjective and really only brings profitable benefits to the natural gas industry. The proposed project is to drill on the Marcellus Shale in upstate New York. To drill one single well the estimated cost is 7.6 million US dollars.
How does hydraulic fracturing work?
Hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a means of natural gas extraction employed in deep natural gas well drilling. Once a well is drilled, millions of gallons of water, sand and proprietary chemicals are injected, under high pressure, into a well. (Generally 1-8 million gallons of water may be used to frack a well. A well may be fracked up to 18 times. And the chemicals are: For each frack, 80-300 tons of chemicals may be used. Presently, the natural gas industry does not have to disclose the chemicals used, but scientists have identified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. )The pressure fractures the shale and props open fissures that enable natural gas to flow more freely out of the well. Horizontal hydrofracking is a means of tapping shale deposits containing natural gas that were previously inaccessible by conventional drilling. Vertical hydrofracking is used to extend the life of an existing well once its productivity starts to run out, sort of a last resort. Horizontal fracking differs in that it uses a mixture of 596 chemicals, many of them proprietary, and millions of gallons of water per frack. This water then becomes contaminated and must be cleaned and disposed of. The average well is up to 8,000 feet deep. The depth of drinking water aquifers is about 1,000 feet. The problems typically stem from poor cement well casings that leak natural gas as well as fracking fluid into water wells.

How much does a well cost?
• Land acquisition and leasing: $2.1 million
• Permitting: $10,000
• Vertical drilling: $663,000
• Horizontal drilling: $1.2 million
• Hydraulic fracturing: $2.5 million
• Completion: $200,000
• Production to gathering: $472,000
What is the project lifecycle?
• Phase 1. Mineral leasing/ acquisition and permitting
• Phase 2. Sit Construction
• Phase 3. Drilling
• Phase 4. Hydraulic Fracturing
• Phase 5. Completion
• Phase 6. Production
• Phase 7. Workovers
• Phase 8. Plugging and abandonment/reclamation
Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

How does hydrofracking impact the environment?
1.) Hydrofracking requires 1-2 million gallons for one single fracking. Water depletion is of great concern.
2.) More than 200 toxic chemicals are used in the hydrofracking fluid. Including known carcinogens (benzene, arsenic and polycyclic aromatics). Other substances are associated with endocrine disruption, damage to reproductive health, immune suppression, and genetic mutations.
3.) External toxic substances. When shale formations are disturbed other toxic and radioactive materials are released. Additionally, reports show that material returned to the surface of the wells due to improper wastewater treatment and deemed impossible for natural waterways to dilute. This could pose a continuing health threat to humans and to the ecosystem that depends upon drinking or exposed to the water.
4,) Water contamination has proven to be inevitable.
5.) Safety of contamination and waste disposable. About 60% of the hydrofracking fluid is usually recovered after drilling. It is stored on site in evaporation pits and may then be trucked offsite for use in another fracking operation or for treatment and disposal in surface waters or underground reservoirs. If the pits are improperly managed ground water contamination is a high risk.
6.) Forty percent or more of the fluid remains underground. Can these fluids migrate underground?
“Legislation requiring a tracking system for disposal of this sludge failed, although it is known that some wastewater is disposed of in wastewater treatment plants and some are sold to municipalities to clear ice and snow off roads (recycled wastewater has a very high salt content). US EPA research found that about 50 million gallons of wastewater was unaccounted for. “ (Epa.gov)
7.) Air pollution is an issue related to site operations, evaporation pits, and to the emissions of the hundreds of heavy duty diesel trucks coming and going carrying materials, water and waste.
8.) Deforestation. Large areas of land need to be cleared to begin operations.
9.) Energy Use. Drilling operations also involve lights 24 hours a day.
10.)Noise pollution– from the initial month of drilling the well to the continuous noise generated by operation of compressor stations.
11.) Effects on health. It is not clear the effects however; dozens of reports of water contamination, foul odor and health issues have been reported.
Ex/ “Chris Mobaldi, who lived in Rifle, Colorado, believes her neurological system was damaged by drinking water that may have been contaminated by drilling fluids from wells around her home. She had two tumors removed from her pituitary gland and endured excruciating pain.” (sourcewatch.org)
12.) Safety. Residents nearby operations have reported being able to hold up a lighter near their water faucets and huge billowing flames would erupt. You cannot see and smell the gas so residents have no warning of contamination.
What is being done now? Anticipated measures and mitigation.
In its fiscal year 2010 budget report, the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriation Conference Committee identified the need for a focused study of this topic:
“The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship
between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach
that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of
information. The conferees expect the study to be conducted through a
transparent, peer-reviewed process that will ensure the validity and accuracy of the data. The Agency shall consult with other Federal agencies as well as appropriate State and interstate regulatory agencies in carrying out the study, which should be prepared in accordance with the Agency’s quality assurance principles.”

Fracking has brought public outrage. The EPA intends to redue the fracking study. HF is the act of drilling deep into the earth to recover natural case.
Where are the bans and acts for regulation:
http://www.sourcewatch.org/images/8/85/Edelstein-bans-vs-population-bubble-fracking.jpg
In 1974, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was passed by Congress to ensure clean drinking water free from both natural and man-made contaminates.

The FRAC Act (Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness to Chemical Act) is a House bill intended to repeal the Halliburton Loophole and to require the natural gas industry to disclose the chemicals they use.

What are the questions being asked?

How are HF operations sited in relation to other injection or extraction activities (e.g., other HF operations or other UIC wells)?
• Can HF sites are mapped to evaluate current and projected development,
geographical distribution, relationship to drinking water resources, and proximity to communities, tribal lands and communities that might face socio-economic hardships?
• Do site preparation and well construction activities have potential to impact water resources?
• What criteria should be considered in evaluating the proximity of drinking water resources (underground and surface) and water availability to siting HF activities?
• To what extent may other nearby well penetrations, especially abandoned wells, affect potential impacts from HF activities?
What tools are needed to define an appropriate area of review surrounding the HF well?
What tools and analytical methods are needed to characterize HF fluids, produced water, and site-runoff?
• What are the fate and transport properties of HF fluids?
• How can well construction and maintenance practices prevent contamination of water resources?
• What materials and design/construction practices are needed for wells to which HF treatments will be applied?
• What types of monitoring and testing can be used to ensure wells and fractures are placed in appropriate locations to protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDWs) and geologic confining layers?
• What are the most effective methods for well failure mitigation, including methods for assessing well integrity, designing HF treatments, and monitoring during and after HF?
• What safeguards are needed to prevent mechanical integrity failures that could result in leaks of fluids and gases into USDWs that overlie the gas reservoir?
• What are the possible problems and impacts associated with available options for the management and disposal of produced water and do remedial technologies exist?
• What data and information are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of best management practices (BMPs) for the storage, treatment, and disposal of produced water? What are the constraints on recycling the produced water rather than disposal?
• What tools and analytical methods are needed to characterize emissions from HF and associated gas production operations?
• What data and information are needed to optimize BMPs for vapor emissions during HF operations?

The priorities are preventative actions and to avoid risk at all cost. There needs to be complete and on going reporting on the quantity and the content of waste generated, reports related to emissions and disposition. Compliance to the clean drinking water act and EPA regulators present on cite is a way to assure monitoring and auditing. Legislative action is a must, both federal and state level.
Fracking is not the solution. I believe it poses too many environmental threats and the risk largely out weighs the benefits. I hope that fracking is stopped. I am glad to see that the public stood up and demanded assessment and reevaluation from the EPA. I hope that both state and federal organizations do not work against each other nor put the burden of the problem on one institution but establish laws and regulations for the entire country to comply with.

Work Cited:
http://nofracking.com/#local
TEDX: The Endocrine Disruption Exchange. 2010. Accessed May 20, 2010. http://www.endocrinedisruption.com/chemicals.introduction.php
The New York Times. The Halliburton Loophole. Published November 2009.
Thomas, Library of Congress. HR 2766. Accessed February 15,
2012.http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c111:H.R.2766:
GovTrack. Fracturing Responsibility and Awareness of Chemicals Act. June 2009. Accessed February 15, 2012.
Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Ground Water & Drinking Water. Safe Water Drinking Act. Accessed February 15,2012 .http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/
Environmental Protection Agency of New York City. Statement on Hydrofracking. Accessed February 18,2012
The New York Times. Dark Side of a Natural Gas Boom. 2009. Accessed February 17,2012.
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Fracking
http://www.gaslandthemovie.com/


Climate Change: CDM Solar Cooker

CDM is a cooperative mechanism established under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change. The purpose of CDM projects is to assist non annex 1 parties in achieving sustainable development while allowing annex I countries to meet their emission targets through carbon credits generated through implementation of projects. CDM is subject to authority and guidance of the parties serving the meeting of COP/MOP to KP and is supervised by an executive board. Eligible projects include:
• end use energy efficiency improvements,
• Supply-side efficiency improvements
• Renewable energy
• Fuel switching
• Agriculture ( CH4 and NO2 reduction projects )
• Industrial process
• Sinks projects (only afforestation and reforestation)
The active stakeholders involved are the executive board, the project participants, designated national authority and the designated operational authority. The baseline for a CDM project is the scenario that reasonably represents the anthropogenic emissions by sources of GHS that would occur in the absence of the proposed project. The baseline should be constructed for a project on a specific basis and in a transparent and conservative manner. It should take into account project boundary, leakage potential, and relevant national and/or sectorial policies and circumstances such as sectorial reform initiatives, local fuel availability, power sector expansion plans, and the economic situation in the project sector.

The aims of CDM Solar Cooker Project Aceh 1 was to demonstrate by a pilot project that fuel efficient projects can be completely financed through Certified Emission Reductions. It can be reframed in other countries to reduce world wide climate change and consequences arising from the burning of fuel wood. The main criteria to be fulfilled are to successfully transfer sustainable technology and through the use of modalities and procedures with the objective of ensuring transparency, efficiency and accountability through independent auditing and verification activities. CDM additionally ensures compliance with UN Millennium Goals. Concept of CERS for making devices of high quality and long durability accessible to people who most need it to overcome disadvantages of conventional cooking. Through the use of prefabricated kits, these kits allow for production of high capacity and high quality to ensure transparency, efficiency and accountability. This will bring about poverty eradication, education and gender goals through the transfer of equipment and know-how. The project can minimize expenses for fuel and generate income. IT improves health standards by avoiding smoke in the kitchen and accidents due to traditional cooking, provides high quality drinking water and improves life conditions.

The solar cooker is a powerful project that fights against poverty and alleviating fuel cost. The external advantages are through sustainable technology. Furthermore, a CDM project creates short term jobs. The solar cooker began in Indonesia and has been implemented in 126 countries. This is a positive example of CDM projects.


Climate Change thought…..

Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement signed to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, Convention). The goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The set forth timeframe is 2008 until 2012. Involvement of countries is voluntary. Currently, the USA is pursuing a separate climate change strategy unlinked to the international climate change policies. It is imperative that success is reached in the reduction of greenhouse gases from both from an environmental and economic standpoint. International trading regimes will encourage US to engage in an international regime. If the Kyoto parties decide to recognize credits generated from emission reduction projects of non parties such as the US (along the same lines as the clean development mechanism) this will lead to the realization of a more global goal for battling climate change. The US could potentially make use of low cost emissions reductions and recognize them aiding to the reduction of emissions. It is unlikely that the Kyoto Protocol will produce a single emissions trading system. The emergence of various trading systems is sure to arise with the same intention of reducing GHG emissions, which will surely bring about considerable challenges. It is important that Kyoto parties allow for credits of non involved members. The most important thing is that globally, we work to reduce GHG emissions.

The pros of the KyotoProtocol
– It sets GHG emissions reduction targets – The largest known contribution comes from the burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide gas to the atmosphere. – IPCC Fourth AssessmentReport: Climate Change 2007:http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/faq-2-1.html)
– The protocol invents economically justified mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions
The cons
– The existing Kyoto Protocol is signed and ratified by certain amount of countries. The total percentage of Annex I Parties (developed countries) emissionsis 63.7%. (http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php). As the result –the countries which are responsible for great part of the word’s emissions have no obligation according to the Kyoto Protocol.
– Fast growing economies like China, India are among the developing countries which have no obligations according to the Kyoto protocol and practically can continue to develop without implementing environmental technologies and emitting great amount of GHG.
– Some countries which are historically responsible for climate change(for example developed countries with economy in transition, like Ukraine) in fact have no obligation to reduce GHG as in 1990 (base year in the KyotoProtocol) they emitted much more emissions than in 2008-2012 because of the bigeconomy recession after 1990’s. (NECU, 2010: http://www.necu.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/ghg_potential_uk_final.pdf).As the result Ukraine has an opportunity to develop and increase the level of GHG emission.
– Controlling schemes of Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanisms implementation are not perfect. There are examples when Kyoto revenues, received from assigned amount units trading between different states are spent on different purposes which do not lead to GHG emission reduction and are not even connected with environmental issues. Thus implementations of the Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanisms do not lead to GHG emission reduction and realization of the purpose of the UNFCCC.
-Without mechanisms to ensure the effective enforcement and compliance with international obligations, the commitment to mitigate climate change is basically void.
– The issue of the compliance and legal consequences. Protocols to the Convention should develop mechanisms of GHG emissions reduction and aim at establishing transparent monitoring and verifying rules.


Open Innovation: VOTE TO GET MOVING AND SHAKING


Open Innovation


“Open innovation is the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively. This paradigm assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as they look to advance their technology.” Henry Chesbrough, Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm.
Henry Chesbrough coined the term Open Innovation. Open Innovation has spurred from traditional closed door innovation to a more globalized open forum. Today, we have an access to information like never before. The internet allows for companies to share stats and ideas in an instance.

The principals of open innovation, taken from www.openinnovation.eu are as follows:

• Create the best idea in the industry
• External R&D can create significant value
• We do not have to originate the research to profit from it
• Building a better business model is better than getting to the market first
• If we make the best use of internal and external ideas, we will champion
• We should profit from others’ use of our IP, and we should buy others’ IP whenever it advances our business model

To apply open innovation and see how it is working I look towards CDTI, an innovative research and development firm based in Spain. The state of their innovation strategy has led Spain to be the ninth global power in innovation. CDTI states that innovation is one of the basic pillars for achievement and recovering from the current financial crisis. The E2I strategy( an open innovation strategy) aims to boost companies in order to accompany them in a much-needed change in the current manufacturing model and to increase the number of innovatory companies. The strategic pillars of this model are five fold: territorial integration, internalization, markets, financing and of course people. Action will be intensified to encourage greater qualitative impact for the transfer of knowledge to the business world so that research is capable of driving investment. CDTI seeks to encompass all the stakeholders of society, share and spread ideas and work towards developing the most innovative ideas and products on the market. CDTI will allocate 1.25 billion euros for corporate RTD&I initiatives. CDTI analyses the public private partnerships as measure to reinforce industrial research. CDTI understands the importance to encourage research so that the best idea of the industry will be realized. CDTI is an excellent company that not only embraces open innovation but also stands on it as its foundation for research and development in Spain.

Source:
All the suggested readings were looked at in order to guide me towards CDTI
Magazine of Technology Innovation. Year 2010. Issue 36. Publication of the Spanish Center for Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI)


USA corruption and manipulation that exist that allows investors to ignore the EIA and the EPA for personal monitorial gains.

The purpose of this blog was to find an area in your country where EIA or SEA was used or should have been, give a brief description of the problem.

This blog reflects the USA corruption and manipulation that exist that allows investors to ignore the EIA and the EPA for personal monitorial gains.

EIA- Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources
Josh Fox created a film that has left me tossing and turning at night. Fox was asked to lease his land for hydraulic fracturing in order to release natural gas. He sought out to report on all the appalling consequences of fracking in the western part of my country. This was sadly done in the western part of my country and has become widely known as the Haliburton loophole. Chenney, CEO of Haliburton and Vice President to Bush, created a loophole in the 2005 Energy bill that exempts gas drillers from the EPA guidelines like the clean water act. Chenney/ Haliburton drilled on protected land and seriously disturbed the habitat and environment of the surrounding inhabitants. So, what kept me up at night? First, it was the complete corruption and manipulation of corporate America. (this is nothing new) Haliburton’s complete disregard for any interest except its own monitorial gain is disgusting. Secondly, it was proposed to go down in my own backyard in NY. New York City’s water supply system is one of the most extensive municipal systems in the world. Our fantastic water as of now is due to our well protected watersheds. In New York we have some of the best water in the world, this helps to make our delicious bagels and pizzas. Fracturing could severely harm our watershed destroying our natural water basin resulting in a myriad number of negative consequences. An EIA and SEA must be done and ACCOUNTED FOR!!!!

How does Hydraulic fracturing work?(www.gaslandthemovie.com)
Fracking is a means of natural gas extraction employed in deep natural gas well drilling. Once the well is drilled, millions of gallons of water, sand and proprietary chemicals are injected, under high pressure, into a well. The pressure fractures the shale and props open fissures that enable gas to flow more freely out of the well.
The FRAC Act is a house bill intended to repeal the Halliburton Loophole and to require natural gas industry to disclose the chemicals they use. ( yet to be passed)

More about Hydraulic fracturing in my next blog. Where I will through EIA/SEA assess the detrimental impacts of Hydraulic fracturing.


Beginning SEA and EIA. Fiji Tourism

Below, to start the course off here is an example of SEA and its application to Fiji’s Tourism Development

“There is a great need for auditing, impact assessments and such exercises to ensure that decisions made to implement sustainable environmental programmes are strategic, people focused and cost effective and sustainable”
-Fiji’s National Assessment report 2002 to the World Summit on Sustainable Development

Fiji’s Tourism Development Plan was written by Roger Levett and Richard McNally

The following case studies were looked into:
Case Study 1: Land Conflicts in Fiji
Case Study 2: Borocay Island, Philippines: The Erosion of Local Benefits
Case Study 3: Bali: Growing Social Problems
Case Study 4: Integrated Coastal Management in Fiji
Case Study 5: Nutrient Capture at the Shangri – La Fijian
Case Study 6: Community Based Tourism: An Example of Samoa
Case Study 7: Ecotourism: Oarsman Bay Lodge, Yasawas
Case Study 8: An Example from St. Lucia: pro poor tourism
Case Study 9: Rivers Fiji: An Example of Working with
Local Communities
Case Study 10: Environmental Protection Fund in the Cook Islands

The basic objectives of the study were to:

� assessing the environmental and sustainable development impacts of the current plan from 2002
� Test the usefulness of SEA as a tool for improving the sustainability of
strategies and plans in the Asia-Pacific region, with a view to using it more
widely in the region.

A Strategic Environmental Assessment was carried out to understand the likely environmental and social impacts of the plan. This was achieved by comparing the current environmental, social and economic baseline and likely trends under the TDP against sustainability objectives. This allows an assessment to be made of whether or not the TDP is sustainable.

SEA defined:
In 2001 the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 2001/42/EC ‘on the
assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment’
(Commission of the European Communities 2001) setting out an approach to
SEA and requiring Member States to apply it to all plans and programmes
started after July 2004. Its purpose is ‘to provide for a high level of protection of
the environment and contribute to the integration of environmental
considerations into the preparation and adoption of plans… with a view to
promoting sustainable development’ (Article 1 of the Directive).

Effects:
cumulative: the total effect of a whole series of tourism developments on
fresh water resources in a catchment area;
� indirect: if taking prime land for tourism development pushes farmers onto
erosion-prone slopes, or if presence of more foreigners erodes young
peoples’ appreciation / respect for traditional ways of life;
� synergistic: if a combination of individually small and apparently separate
effects – for example increases in nutrient loading from sewerage, seepage
from landfill, more boat movements, more contact from divers and warming
of the sea due to climate change – might in combination cause enough stress
to corals to kill reefs.

SEA Process broken down by stages:
1.) Identify relevant plans and programmes and their relation to the plan
2.) Devise draft SEA objectives, indicators and targets, collect baseline data, including data on likely future trends, issues and constraints
3.) Identify options for dealing with the plan issues
4.) Prepare scoping report, consult
5.) Assess the plan options effect on the SEA objectives and their consistency with relevant other plans and programmes, choose preferred options, propose mitigation measures
6.) Screen the plan policies and policies and proposals, assess their effect on the SEA objectives, propose mitigation measures including links to EIA
7.) Propose SEA monitoring
8.) Prepare the Environmental Report to accompany the draft plan, consult
9.) Take consultation results into account



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