We all know Wikipedia, but… Who make it and Why!?

Wikipedia is a social enterprise, which is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and/or environmental well-being, rather than maximising profits for external shareholders.

Wikipedia is a free, collaboratively edited and multilingual Internet encyclopedia which is supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. It has 22 million articles that are collaboratively written by volunteers all around the world!! Almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site. It has about 100,000 regularly active contributors with editions in 285 languages. It has become the largest and most popular general reference work on the Internet having an estimated 365 million readers worldwide.

A Social Enterprise can be seen as an alternative proposal to the social welfare crisis. It is a business that relaunched a perspective where is prevailing values such as reciprocity, sustainability and solidarity through a united civic effort. Therefore, acting as a recomposition of the link between “economic” and “human” where the protagonist are the people who is acting working on their own project that, in this case, is “open” to everybody 🙂

Wikipedia, generated its own identity through a group of associatiated people. It has become a vehicule to produce socialization, through the creation and multiplication of social exchange. It generates interaction and foster cooperation, social ties and solidarity among not only the people involved in the proyect but the whole society that is everyday using the information wikipedia is providing.

Therefore, Wikipedia as a social enterprise is creating an equal knowledge access opportunities  for everybody!

Let’s share your knowledge, Let’s be part of Wikipedia!!

 


This Apple seems to be prettier outside than inside…

Apple is one of the few IT companies that does not publish an annual CSR report. In this respect, Apple only has two documents that are relevant for its stakeholders:

If we take into account that most of the Apple’s products are manufactured by third-party manufacturers and the company has also utsourced much of its transportation and logistics management, we will understand that Apple’s suppliers are essential for the business.

We can find in Apple’s website:

“Apple is committed to ensuring the working conditions in Apple’s supply chain are safe, that workers are treated with respect and dignity, and that manufacturing processes are environmentally responsible. Apple’s suppliers are obligated in all their activities, to operate in fullcompliance with laws, rules and regulations of the countries in which they operate.”

This makes me feel that the company is making efforts to address the concerns of its suppliers but as we all know it seem the company is just doing it after a reputational risk arises.

Apple, cites as it principles: Honesty, respect, confidentiality and compliance. These values ​​sound very good; therefore, if they were carried out, there would endow the trade of a respectable ethical character.  However, from my point of view and given recent events of labor abuse at factories in China, it seems to be time for Apple to include “Equity” as a fundamental value, understanding Equity as the quality of being fair or impartial. Due to ethics this is not just about respecting the workers but treating them on an equal footing with the rest of Apple employees around the world.

Within the company values I missed “transparency” and “corporate integrity”. The unification of the two previous concepts, fairness and transparency, would form the same principal as last one “corporate integrity”. If we could spread these values through all the aspects of the company, and be sure they are implementing the idea, they would provide a “safe pillar” to rest Apple’s righteousness with their stakeholders, as society in the case of the demand for an ethical Iphone, or the suppliers and employees in the case of Chinese factories scandal.

Apple with its new CEO Tim Cook seems to be interested in developing a new vision of the company, one which includes CSR. The new CEO announced that Apple would embrace a new corporate charity matching program, using a model much like those of other major companies.  Cook is making efforts to send the message that Apple is not only pretty outside but also inside, evolving in the way the company perceives CSR. However, as we know, CSR is not only philanthropy…

So…

We would have to wait to see Apple truly integrated CSR into its business model…

But, for how long?

 


Love Brand

As customers, we can see how business are creating emotional engagement with their stakeholders  trough CSR strategies, these strategies have been seen from some people as something  trendy that was going to die due to the crisis. Therefore, the truth is that “trust” is always important but becomes something crucial in times of crisis, when not only customers, but also all the stakeholders base their decisions in how much they can Trust on each other.

In times of economic crisis such as the ones we are living now, knowing that you can trust the people that you work with, your suppliers, the products you are buying and selling or the services you will give and receive is fundamental!!

But…

 

Think about it!


Desarrollo sostenible, energía, movilidad, RSC y empresa.

Suena el despertador; empieza un nuevo día y millones de personas nos desplazamos para llegar a nuestro lugar de trabajo, un recorrido que hacemos dos veces al día, unas diez veces a la semana. Pero, ¿Dónde está nuestro lugar de trabajo?  Y ¿Cómo llegamos a él?

Haciendo uso del transporte público, del coche, la moto, la bici, nuestras propias piernas o una combinación de ellas, dependiendo claro está de dónde estamos nosotros, “punto A”, y de dónde está nuestro centro de trabajo, “punto B”.

Hoy en día, las empresas juegan un rol clave en la manera en la que sus empleados deciden desplazarse cada día para llegar a su puesto de trabajo, ya que, dependiendo de factores como su localización, su conexión con el transporte público o las plazas de aparcamiento que oferte, condicionará sobremanera la forma en que sus trabajadores llegan hasta ella.

Por tanto, la empresa, no puede desentenderse de su responsabilidad en materia de movilidad, debiendo este asunto ser tratado desde las diferentes áreas y departamentos de RSC de las compañías, departamentos dónde la aportación voluntaria que realizan las corporaciones en materia social, económica y ambiental debe ofrecer a sus stakeholders, en este caso particular a sus empleados, un valor añadido, más allá del propio que las relaciona.

El problema de la movilidad al que nos enfrentamos hoy en día no es solo un problema de atascos por las mañanas, de emisiones de Co2 y otros contaminantes que le dan al cielo de ciudades como Madrid esa particular boina negra que cubre nuestro skyline; también es un problema de tiempo, de dinero y sobre todo de bienestar personal, que sin duda repercute en nuestra productividad como trabajadores, ya que no es lo mismo llegar al trabajo cansado y estresado a causa de una experiencia de desplazamiento desagradable que hacerlo despejado y listo para enfrentarse a una nueva jornada laboral.

La RSC debe por tanto analizar las demanda de los trabajadores en cuando a la forma en que llegan a sus puestos de trabajo, debiendo igualmente brindarles facilidades y ayudas para que estos viajes sean lo más sostenible posible, para la empresa en términos reportables de Co2, para la sociedad en cuanto a la calidad del aire que respira, y para los empleados en cuestión de tiempo, de coste y de bienestar.

Los impactos de la Movidad afectan en todas las áreas de la Triple Bottom Line:

¿Qué medios de transporte utilizar? ¿Cómo hacer uso de los mas sostenibles? , ¿de dónde sacar las ideas? Lo que es seguro, es que los que mejores soluciones aplican a los problemas, son aquellos que los sufren día a día, por lo que las mejores soluciones llegarán sin duda desde los propios trabajadores, por lo que las empresas de hoy en día deberán enfrentarse al reto de escuchar a su principal valor, sus trabajadores y ayudarles a que la experiencia de estos desplazamientos impacte de la manera más positiva posible a todas las áreas de la triple bottom line.

 

 


Low carbon economy: Carbon footprint

Carbon Footprints (The Economist article)


1.- Tracking carbon footprints give companies in industrialized countries more control over carbon emissions in developing countries (cross-border carbon flows).

2.- Applying carbon labels could also result in arguments between retailers and suppliers about whose products are greener, but it is also said to be helpful in raising consumer awareness.

3.- Carbon-labelling need to be standardized across the globe to avoid trade barriers and consumer confusion.

4.- Calculating the carbon footprints and applying the labels on each product require high amounts of investment, but it would lead to saving costs spent on energy.

5.- The carbon labels itself does not matter as much as the process that is undergone to attain the certified label, because it’s main benefits are said to derive from upstream manufacturers, not consumers.

6.- The manufacturing processes involved in improving energy efficiency of certain products, such as electrical appliances, have become more complicated, and may result in creation of more carbon footprint but the overall footprint over the product’s entire life cycle has actually been decreased.

7.- Some retailers such as E. Leclerc and other French retailers have taken their own initiatives to come up with creative ways of displaying the carbon labels to increase consumer awareness.

8.- The label idea will work always that it goes beyond the label. The real impact is achieved when companies adapt this tools as a management one (part of its strategy), besides than a marketing one.

9.- The compulsory requirement of carbon labels can create a new barrier due to the investment needed to get it. Therefore, it could exclude from the global market the small and medium business, mainly those from developing countries. If it’s not well managed, it could create (at least in the short term) less competition, giving the market power to big companies with budget to do it.

10.- The regulation of this kind of mechanisms may also create the wrong incentives to companies, limiting their capacity/will to act. In these kind of areas, it is always better to give positive incentives (through voluntary schemes) rather than regulating it.

 

Group:


Tatiana Casquero

Nur Syafrina Mohd. Sharif

Aitana Leret

Diana Sánchez



Climate change#3: CDM “Metro Delhi” project

1.-  Description of the project activity

The objective of the project is the establishment and operation of an efficient, safe, rapid, convenient, comfortable and effective modern mass transit system ensuring high ridership levels in the city of Delhi, India. The city has around 14 million inhabitants being the second largest city in India. The Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) proposed is a partially elevated, partially underground and partially at-grade heavy duty metro with a length of 102 km expecting to transport on average in 2011 around 1.1 million passengers daily.

The Delhi Metro is the first railway project in the world to earn carbon credits after being registered with the United Nations under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and has so far earned 400,000 carbon credits by saving energy through the use of regenerative braking systems on its trains.

It has won awards for environmentally friendly practices from organizations including the United Nations, RINA, and the International Organization for Standardization, becoming the second metro in the world, after the New York City Subway, to be ISO 14001 certified for environmentally friendly construction.

2.-  Contribution of the project to sustainable development

The project contributes to sustainable development in a significant manner in the environmental, social, economic and technological dimensions. Environmental improvements are achieved through less GHG and other air pollutant emissions, specifically particle matter, SO2 and NOx. This is achieved through a more efficient transport system and through using electricity as energy source.

The project complies with all legal requirements of the environmental legislation of India. All environmental permits required have been granted. The project is compliant with national public transport regulations and strategies.

Estimated amount of emission reductions:

The project reduces on average 529,043 tCO2per annum in the first crediting period.

3.-  Contribution of the project  to technology/knowledge transfer

Metro Delhi is a world class metro using state-of-the art metro technology. All equipment used is new. Partially equipment and know-how is imported. This is, e.g. in the case of rail cars progressively indigenized. Through the project a technology transfer thus takes place.

4.- Other positive and negative impacts of the project

The social impact of metro is that it complements other modes of transport and replaces partially trips made by conventional or traditional means of transit by metro, being a more efficient, faster, safer and reliable transport means for Delhi population. This shift improved social wellbeing because of less time lost in congestion, less respiratory diseases due to less particle matter pollution, and fewer accidents per passenger transported. The metro reduces the number of road accidents due to the reduction of car congestion.

Other social benefit is that the metro have been built thinking in the inclusion of disable people, for instance entry gates are computer controlled retractable flap type automatic gates at entry and at exit with disabled wide reversible gates for disabled people.

The Metro has been promoted as an integral part of community infrastructure, and community artwork depicting the local way of life has been put on display at stations. Students of local art colleges have also designed decorative murals at Metro stations, while pillars of the viaduct on some elevated sections have been decorated with mosaic murals created by local schoolchildren.

5.-  Reasons to justify the additionality of the project

The continuation of inefficient, uncomfortable, unreliable and undignified public transport system, would have been increase the negative impact of the baseline situation in which the continuation of traditional modes of transport such as buses, taxis, private cars, rickshaws and motorcycles, with 6 million vehicles and an exponential growth in the vehicular population will increase the quantity of pollution in Delhi.

Therefore, it was necessary to address the problem of that lack of a quality public transport in order to reduce carbon emissions related to traditional modes of transport in Delhi.

Prior project start the board of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Ltd (DMRC) already considered CDM as vital to cover for the additional costs of a metro. The project participant said that the project activity should be formulated as a CDM activity. They project participant mentioned the Kyoto Protocol finance mechanism and started contacting potential consultants. Also prior project starting date the project was included in the environmental strategy of DMRC. The project participant thus shows clearly awareness of the CDM prior to the project activity start date, and that the benefits of the CDM were a decisive factor in the decision to proceed with the project.

Evidence to support this, are a consideration of the decision by the MD with the full Power of the Board, to undertake the project as a CDM project activity. The additionality of the project is determined using the “Tool for the demonstration and assessment of additionality (version 05.2, EB 39 Annex 10)”.

6.-  What would happen without the CDM project

The baseline situation is a continuation of traditional modes of transport including buses, taxis, private cars, rickshaws, motorcycles and bikes. At the end of 2008, Delhi had nearly 6 million vehicles including 1.8 million private cars, more than 45,000 buses, 76,000 motorized rickshaws and nearly 4 million motorcycles. During the last two decades, Delhi had an exponential growth in the vehicular population having more vehicles than the combined number in the other three metros of India viz. Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

More than 90% of vehicles circulating are personal vehicles. This huge growth is partially due to the increased income but primarily due to a continuation of inefficient, uncomfortable, unreliable and undignified public transport system. In absence of the project, the passengers move from their trip origination to their trip destination by buses, by taxis, by motorized rickshaws, by the existing 3 lines of the metro and by NMT (Non Motorized Transport). To a very limited degree, the existing railway lines although latter are used for inter-urban travel also makes some urban trips. In the baseline situation, these modes of transport would continue to operate and transport passengers from their trip origin to their trip destination.

7.- Climate resilience of the project

The Delhi metro project supported by the CDM has promote the climate resilience as they helped to establishment an efficient, safe, rapid, convenient, comfortable and effective modern mass transit system ensuring high ridership levels in the city of Delhi. Therefore, the CDM is promoting a public mass transport system, which allows the city with a “mechanism” to reduce their pollution, and to be less vulnerable to future climate changes.

According to the UN, Delhi Metro has helped in reducing pollution levels in the city by 6.3 lakh tonnes (105) every year, thereby helping in mitigating impacts of global warming. As travel by Metro is completely non-polluting and environment-friendly, it reduces the GHG emissions, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, which would have resulted by the travelled by cars, buses, taxis…

A passenger who chooses to use Metro instead of his car, he contributes in reduction in emissions to the extent of approximately 100gm of carbon dioxide for every trip of 10km, becoming this way party to the reduction in global warming.

According to figures by DMRC, more than 91 thousand vehicles have been removed from Delhi’s roads because of Delhi Metro. tha’s a huge change! Isn’t it? 🙂


 


Innovación: Converse se deja personalizar

All Star, ¿qué te viene a la mente cuando lees esta palabra?

¿Cuándo ves esta imagen?

Las All Star, comenzaron su andadura allá por el 1917 en el mundo del baloncesto, cuando Chuck Taylor jugaba en los Akron Firestones y los Búfa Germans, y eligió las All Star como sus zapatillas oficiales, haciéndose su nombre inseparable del característico chirrido que producía la goma de sus converses en el campo de basket. Pero su nombre también se ha hecho inseparable no solo de sus zapatillas sino de las tuyas, estando siempre presente en el parche exterior de cada par.

A finales de los 50 y en los 60 triunfaron de nuevo en EEUU, donde se pudieron ver a personalidades como John Lennon, James Dean o Elvis Presley luciendo nuevos modelos de Converse que dominarían el mercado americano hasta los 70.

Tras un largo periodo a la sombra, volvieron con fuerza, bajo un nuevo dueño sí, pero con la misma alma no solo de icono de moda, sino como un símbolo de identidad propia, de originalidad, de pasión, de rebeldía, de lucha y de personalidad que ha resistido varias generaciones y ha pasado de padres a hijos.

Sin embargo… ¿cuántas veces este símbolo se nos ha hecho pequeño y hemos tuneado nuestras propias converse para darle nuestro toque personal y reconocerlas auténticamente como nuestras?

Pues bien, Converse ha sabido reconocer la oportunidad de negocio en la necesidad de sus consumidores de costumizar sus Chucks. Para dar esta posibilidad “customizadora” a sus fans americanos, Converse creó hace unos años una herramienta que incluyó en su página web para crear tu propios diseños de All Star, combinando colores y estampados para crear las zapatillas más originales y que mejor se adapten a tu propio estilo.

¡Os animo a que probéis a diseñar vuestras propias All Star!

http://www.converse.com/#/products/shoes/converseOne/scratch/all

Este ha sido el resultado de mi propio diseño…

Esto es lo que se conoce como Innovación dirigida por el usuario, un fenómeno que se ha instalado en las industrias y en la que los propios consumidores de los productos pueden customizarlos diferenciando así los suyos de los de los demás.

La herramienta de Converse es muy fácil de utilizar, solo tienes que escoger uno de los modelos de la marca e ir diseñando cada parte la zapatilla. Resulta muy divertido ir probando combinaciones de colores y estampados aunque por desgracia para nosotros, desde España, es con lo único que nos podemos conformar, con pasar un buen rato diseñando nuestra propia “Chuck”, puesto que los envíos solo se realizan en EEUU.

La realidad es que si una marca quiere destacar en un mercado tan dinámicos como es el de la moda, necesita tomar ventaja de la propia creatividad de sus usuarios, y para ello no hay mejor manera que invitarles a participar en el diseño de sus propias zapatillas, y ahora con internet es muy fácil! Y es que los que realmente usamos un producto somos sin duda los que mejor sabemos mejorarlo. Hacer de las converses no solo un símbolo sino nuestro propio símbolo, hará que estas zapatillas vuelvan a nuestros pies, y esta vez, para quedarse.

 

 

 

 

 

 


EIA & SEA: Hotel el Algarrobico; What should be done?

Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

This is the hotel of the Algarrobico, a huge construction of 24 plants in the Natural Park of Cabo de Gata-Nijar, in Almeria, Spain. An unfinished work that has been stopped since 2006.

The picture says it all!

 

Greenpeace, and other Environmental groups, asked the judge to expedite the demolition of the building due to in 2008 a judgment declared void the building permit. However, as the decision is not final, the building can not be finished or demolished.

It is important to highlight that the Environmental Impact Assessment of the project have not been done despite the hotel is located in an Important Community Site.

The developer” Azata del Sol” states that the construction were carried out within the law. They bought the plot that was already qualified as developable land in 2002. In early 2003 they got all the necessary licenses to build it. They even ask the Ministry of Environment who said that he had no competition due to the area was a developable area.

When they were building the hotel, the regulation established that there must be 20 meters distance between the hotel and the sea. However, they decided to begin to build 50 meters away, so everything was legal. The problem began when the government raised a hundred meters the distance that should exist between the hotel and the sea. Although, this change came when the building was nearly done – with the 94% of the building already constructed- the construction was stopped.

The demolition of the Algarrobico can be immediate done if the Board of Andalucia and the Ministry of Environment ask for the provisional execution of the judgment that declared illegal the building permit.

Population want to sue the mayor for disobedience due to the Supreme Court said the land was not developable but the mayor insists to qualify the land as buildable. The mayor says that as the hotel is nearly finished the best thing to do would be open it in order to generate employment and tourism.

Traders want to take advantages from the potential of the Natural Park Cabo de Gata-Nijar, so they want the hotel to be open as it has been build within the law. They states that, as it is already built demolish it would cause even more harm than to open it. Thinking in the Spanish situation, we should not throw the hotel away because it would be a huge waste of resources if we demolished it.  It is also important to highlight that the demolition of the hotel would cost to the citizens around 300 million euros.

If EIA or SEA can help us to find out the most sustainable solution for the problem, I will ask for an answer to this question:

“Should the hotel be demolished or should it be open to the public?”


Rural Development: “Vegetarianism contributes to the end of world hunger”

You may be wondering how a vegetarian diet can contribute both to reduce world hunger and to increase food security, which will be crucial in the coming years.

Global population is now over 7,000 million people and we already have 925 million hungry people worldwide, but in 2050, the world population will exceed 9,000 million people, and nearly all of this population increase will occur in developing countries.  So here is the challenge: How are we going to feed them?

Imagen de previsualización de YouTube

 

If we analyze this challenge from a biological perspective, we have that nutrients and energy pass through the trophic levels of the ecosystem when organism feed one on another. Therefore, every time one organism is eaten by another organism, approximately 90% of the energy is lost.

With that amount of population living in this planet we could not afford anymore the 90% energy loss that occurs when plants are fed to animals, as eating meat is by far less efficient than eating vegetables, due to it can takes 8 kilos of grain to create just half kilo of edible flesh. Actually, nowadays we are using huge amounts of grain, soybeans, and corn to feed all the animals we use for food when we should reduced intensively breeding farmed animals and increased to grow crops to feed humans instead.

For example, the grains and soybeans fed to American livestock each year could feed more than 1.5 billion people going hungry. The President of the Foundation on Economic Trends, Jeremy Rifkin, stated: “Cattle and other livestock are devouring much of the grain produced on the planet. It needs to be emphasized that this is a new phenomenon, unlike anything ever experienced before.”

 

The same amount of grain can support 10 times more people at the herbivore trophic level than at the carnivore one, we will have to feed ourselves at the herbivore level if we want the planet to support the exponential population growth.

The United Nations Environment Program (ENEP) and The European Commission have jointly launched a major report calling for shift to a vegan diet to save the earth and a radical change in the way that economies uses resources known to be dwindling at alarming rates in order to minimize the environmental impact. The report was presented to world governments, urge policy makers to adopt measures to avoid adverse consequences.

 

 

The study title “Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production” identified two leading causes of environmental pressure: fossil fuels and agriculture, with specific attention giving to the livestock sector. We can read there, as I said before, that as meat has a higher energy used per kilogram produced than vegetables, we have to find priorities. The report explains that with a growing global population and developing economies, the impacts of climate change, environmental degradation and food security will be even more dangerous, unless patterns of productions and consumptions become more sustainable.

The report says that a global change in meat consumption is vital to avoid devastating consequences. “Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase substantially due to population growth increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products.”

They are thinking about taxing meat consumption in order to take seriously the limitation of it consumption. UNEP executive director Achim Steiner highlighted the destructive role of livestock, stating: “Two broad areas are currently having a disproportionately high impact on people and the planet’s life support systems; these are energy in the form of fossil fuels and agriculture, specially the raising of livestock for meat and dairy products. Some tough choices are signaled in this report, but it may prove even more challenging for everyone if the current paths continue in to the coming decades. ”

The Challenge of Hunger is one of the top 10 of the world.  Every year more people die from hunger than other causes such as AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. However, it is the easiest problem to solve the world faces today, but only if we begin to work on it from now and if we change our eating habits in order to use in an efficient way the resources we have.

As every individual makes a difference, when just one person adopts a vegetarian diet, his action frees up enough land to feed as many as 19 other people. Coming back to the American example, if just 10 percent of Americans meat eaters adopted a vegetarian diet, we would have 12 million more tons of grain to feed humans.

As the larger the population, the more energy it takes to sustain it. The least contribution we can make is reducing the amount of meat we are consuming nowadays, because although becoming vegetarian will not immediately stop hunger in a very short-term, however it is a positive step towards saving resources that can be used to feed people instead consumption animals in the future. What means the increase of food security and the reduction of the amount of people dying from hunger every day.

The conclusion is that we need to prioritize a widespread shift to a diet free of animal products in order to ensure the survival of lives on Earth. We do still have time if we act now, so, we have to ask ourselves: how many people am I going to let daily die because of my eating habits?

 

 

 

 

 

 


Climate Change#2 Mexico’s vulnerability

Mexico stands out in particular as a country whose vulnerability appears to be underestimated. It is a large country with a demonstrated ability to minimize loss of human life even in the most severe weather conditions as the dozens of hurricanes they have suffered in recent years.

Mexico's Climate vulnerability by areas

 

The Climate Vulnerability Monitor measures effects across four main areas: Health Impact (deaths due to climate-sensitive diseases), Weather Disasters (deaths and damage caused by storms, floods, and wildfires), Habitat Loss (populations at risk to desertification and sea-level rise), and Economic Stress (industry and asset losses).

The Climate Vulnerability Monitor reflects that Health impact and weather disasters will increase by 2030, but there are no more details available to find out, how have they come to that conclusion, so I tried to analyze them with the Global Adaption Index.

The Global Adaptation Index, measures vulnerability as the country’s exposure, sensitivity and ability to cope with climate related hazards, as well as accounting for the overall status of food, water, health and infrastructure within the nation.

However, one of the weaknesses of this index is that there is not a specific status for Weather disasters so I can only analyze in a comparative way the Health impact.

We can see that Health vulnerability has decreased in the last 14 years, but as this index just shows information about the past and the first index is telling us information about the future, we cannot compare the results of both tools.

We can concluded that while the second index places Mexico in the 69 position over 161 countries of the vulnerability ranking, showing that Mexico vulnerability has decreased in the last years, the first approach states that it will increase again in coming years.

 

 



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