Alberto Arias Fernández >>

Nueva ISO9001:2008

La Nueva ISO 9001:2015, Borrador, con los Primeros Cambios

La norma ISO 9001, continua evolucionando y ya está disponible el borrador de la futura ISO 9001:2015 que está siendo actualmente revisado por el comité ISO/TC 176.

Desde la ISO 9000 de 1987 o incluso desde sus precursoras como la BS 9000 o la BS 5750, han pasado ya casi 30 años y sigue siendo el estandar de calidad internacional estrella, por todo ello existe gran espectación a los nuevos cambios que nos depara esta nueva versión, que nacerá con 7 años de diferencia de su hermana mayor.

Seguro que de aquí a su publicación se producirán variaciones, ya que estamos en un estado podría decirse inicial, pero los principales cambios actuales son:

 

Destacan la planificación y el liderazgo como ejes importantes y el cambio de “Realización de Producto” a Operaciones, más amoldable a cualquier sector

El punto 4.4.2 explicita con un conjunto de requisitos que se consideran esenciales para la adopción de un enfoque basado en procesos en una organización (determinar los procesos, los insumos, los resultados, la secuencia, interacción, los riesgos, indicadores, recursos, responsabilidades, autoridades, acciones para la consecución de los resultados…)

En el apartado 10.1 habla de no conformidades y acciones correctivas cuando la actual ISO 9001 del 2008 tiene un apartado para ella sola, el 8.5.1.

El Anexo SL (en el que se basa la nueva estructura de la ISO 9001:2015) no habla de acciones preventivas ya que concibe cualquier sistema de gestión como una herramienta de prevención en sí. Es por ello que la norma ISO 9001:2015 habla de la prevención a un más alto nivel alienada a la gestión de riesgos en su punto 6.1.Acciones para abordar los riesgos y las oportunidades

 

Los términos “documento” y “registro” se han sustituido ambos, en línea con el Anexo SL Apéndice 2 por “información documentada”

 

En tres ocasiones nos habla la norma ISO 9001:2015 del cliente y … “las partes interesadas”. Un enfoque a calidad total y a modelos de Excelencia que nos deja incluir a accionistas, personas, sociedad, proveedores, alianzas en aspectos tales como las expectativas y necesidades, la interacción (comunicación, establecimiento de requisitos…) o la propiedad

 

Otro aspecto muy relacionado con los modelos de Excelencia y que se detalla claramente en la nueva norma es Planificación y control de cambios (punto 6.3.), algo no muy clarificado en la versión actual de ISO y que en un entorno como el actual (… dónde el cambio es la única constante) es imprescindible

 

Respecto a este punto los auditores se van a poner “mucho más estrictos” en este sentido. La nueva norma no se va a limitar sólo al desarrollo de los ciclos de NC / AC, de Auditorías Internas y Externas, y de evaluación de satisfacción de clientes e indicadores, sino que van a instar a las organizaciones a emplear más herramientas para gestionar las oportunidades de mejora organizando bien las acciones a desarrollar: “La organización debe evaluar, priorizar y determinar la mejora a implementar”.

Ver Documento de la Norma

 

Fuente: www.intedya.com/

 


Volkswagen Automotive Manufacturing Plant in Shanghai

The automotive manufacturing plant that Volkswagen has set up in Shanghai is a very well structured and organized factory where machines and people work together. Volkswagen has transfered all their high technology, know-how and quality to this plant in order to maintain the position and spirit of the brand. In the visit of the plant we could see how everything is working and which are the differents parts of the factory.

Sin título    20150310_152540

 

In the first part of the plant is held the construction of the different components of the chassis (such as body, doors,etc.). They are made separately and later on, all the parts are assembled and connected with each other. In the next stage, with the chasis already assembled, it is set the dashboard by its different parts. The work team and concentración of the employees are very important here. There are quite a lot of components and devices that are needed to be set in a row. In a conveyor belt, where the car is moving, the employees are working against the time and they need to conclude their job not to break the work chain. The following workers should start their next specific task in the conveyor belt when the car arrive to their spot. Once the body with the dashboard of the car is finished, all this piece is connected with the bottom part of the chassis, engine and breaks.To complete the car, they need to set the remaining parts such as seats, doors, etc.

It might seem easy as it is explained here, but there are a lot of complex processes and machines that are involved in the manufacture of the car. The employees should be working hard as well not to break any part of the chain. There are differents team focus in developing and product every part of the car and their job is very important in order to allow the next team continue manufacture of the car. Without an specific part of the car finished, the chain is broken, what means that at the end, all the employees are just “one team” working together to finish the car in time. Finally, the brand new cars are gathered together and they are ready to be sent to the clients.

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SMEs, a future in China?

Firstly, what is  a  SME?

         A Small and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME), sometimes referred to as Small and Medium-sized businesses (SMBs), are businesses were the employees´ numbers fall below certain limits as do their revenues.  It must be mentioned that not only small enterprises outnumber large companies by a wide margin, but also they do employ more workers.  SMEs are also considered to be responsible for driving innovation and competition in many economic sectors.

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Current Situation

        China´s continuous and exponential economic growth has demonstrated an extremely important need for new and innovative enterprises. Enter SMEs.

However, although there are nowadays many SME being established in China, the not well defined financial and legal limits and irregularities regarding them have been proven as an obstacle for their development in this country.

Therefore, their future in China depends directly in their access to financing.

Due to this, there are four main hurdles that must dissapear in order to fully introduce SMEs in this country.

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One of the first obstacles that should be tackled are the structural advantages that SOEs (State-Owned enterprises) have over SMEs in China so banks end their preference financing the first over the last.

This takes us directly to the second problem that should be taken care of. The so called “SME’s lending-focus”. Large banks only lend to SME by a 10%, in comparison to the 20% small and medium banks give. As large banks dominate the Chinese banking landscape, it’s of vital importance that this initiative gets support, so that these enterprises can have an easy access to this banks’ financial support, mainly to improve their efficiency.

Of course, this would mean that there’s also a need for a Interest Rate Reformation regarding them.

Last but not least, there is a urge to develop payment innovations that address directly the SME’s unique needs. That is, SMEs with a developed paying method can enhance both efficiency and margins, not only thanks to the supply chain’s performance, but also to the purchasing, T&E and trading finance new paying systems, if made possible.

In a nutshell, based completely in global benchmarks, in order to improve the SME’s access to working capital and financial status, these recommendations should be fully implemented, to remove these final obstacles and allow innovation into China’s economy, as SME’s have proven most competent in this.


Human Resources Management in China

Human resources

         Companies are nowadays more aware than ever of people different skills, values and cultural backgrounds, that is why they are  gradually increasing their effort to gather  and well-manage multicultural teams. In the end, companies’ identity is given by their own employees.

In this regards, both cultural and language barriers may exist when companies settled in different countries get involved in negotiations. So in order to successfully achieve agreements, is advisable to understand the other party’s culture and to put yourself in the other person’s shoes. By doing this, you will be able to anticipate to his/her interests and to know whether the negotiation is already finished, or in the other hand, is still going on, for instance.

China’s pecific case

          Some of the main cultural differences between western countries’ citizens and China’s citizens when negotiating, are that Chinese people tend to delay thee agreement further in time, shifting from one position to another, and knowing this, is important to be patient during the negotiation process, although it may turn out to be tough and annoying.

Another aspect to have in mind is that they do not feel the lie as something neither wrong nor unloyal, they actually aim to get the most out of the negotiation, even if they have to let you down at some point within the negotiation process.

The good leader

         When leading a team, communication effectiveness is a key point. A good leader must be tactful when he/she either talks or leads the team members, trying not to push them too much what would lead them to suffer from stress.

It is also important to have a handbook, so the employees can feel identified with its values when they join the team. Another action to be taken by leaders is to develop a reward/punishment system in order to challenge their employees to work harder and also to prevent them from behaving wrongly or badly.

And the last thing I would like to suggest, but not less important from the above, is that a good leader is not a person that only orders but also a person who listens to his/her employees.

HR Management in China

 

— RUBEN MERAYO SANCHEZ —


The chinese political system

China´s Modern political system: Totalitarian, Meritocratic or Democratic?
China is a meritocratic government. That means if you want to be one of the political leaders, you have to join the commitment party, you have to work hard, you get promoted and raise to the top by doing good work.
But, in some extreme cases, China is said to be a democracy because their leaders are voted. This democracy is not real in fact, because those leaders, which are local, are elected in the lowest levels of the Chinese political system. So at the high levels is definitely not a democracy.
Some people still criticize the Chinese political system today, saying that is a totalitarianism and a regime, a despotic government. That opinion is really controversial, but we can say that China is not a totalitarianism: the country has some problems but things are getting better.
The final idea will be that China is a meritocracy and that implies hard work.

China´s Political Regions and Divisions
China has three different political divisions: provinces (the majority of the divisions are provinces), but also has which are called autonomous regions (Xinjian, Mongolia,…). The difference between a province and an autonomous region is not that big, however the second one is given a little more of authority, they also have more local government representatives, more control over the budget and some regulations, but are still quite similar to the provinces.
China also has what are called “metropolitan areas” or “City States” (Beinjin, Shanghai, Chongging, Tianjin,…). They are like a province but actually is just a “big” city with the same rights than a province.
Hong Kong and Macao are Special Administrative Regions. They have their own currencies, languages, leaders and passports.
The population of these divisions is really big, so many China’s provinces are actually as big as some European countries and their economy could be more powerful. We can conclude that China is a huge economy with many different cultures, languages and regions, but it can change dramatically from place to place: there is no one China.

 

China's Division

China’s Planned Economy
The Chinese system is based on:
Five Year Plans: They were created based on the soviet model of control planning: how define your plan. The idea of planning in terms of five years works very well. The political leaders have two five years terms so a “Ten Year total term”.
These Five Year Plans are agreed every five year and it is a process of internal consensus built by the government. They stablish some decision about the investments, the industry and the direction of the cities.
In addition, China every year has what are called the Two “Big” Meetings. Three thousand people meet and vote different proposals. This represents are well known people (TV presenters, basketball players). The system is not perfect but is has a large background in dealing and treating and allow to introduce some changes in the country.

 

David López Illán (Master en Ingeniería y Gestión Medioambiental)


Trina Solar

Last Wednesdey,  we visited Trina Solar, the solar power leader company in China.

The first thing that we learned was the meaning of the word Trina: “Harmonised environment for the people, their main objective”.

The visit was divided into five stages:

The first one was in an auditorium and consisted of an introduction to the company´s history and trajectory throughout the years.

Trina Solar was founded in 1997 and was from the beginning a pioneer company in this field. In 2000 was created the first BIPV house model in China. After a few years, in 2012, they developed a technology of science key laboratory, this being a very important step for them to continue as the – pioneer leader company in innovation in the word –. I make special mention to the innovative characteristics of this company because, during the whole visit, it was mentioned many times, as they made very clear that they had invested huge sums of money and effort in this.

One other thing that we learned in this first stage of the company´s visit was that, not only three of their most important researcher partnerships are Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, the Australian National University and The University of Queensland, but also Trina Solar cooperates with more than fifteen countries around the world.

For the second part of the visit we were shown to an exhibition room where we saw very easily how solar panels are made, and which are the principal characteristics of the energy that they produce. As simple outline of how the panel making process works is:

Machinery → Silicon → Wafer → Cell → Module → System.

Furthermore, they also have built a smaller scale reproduction of their future plans, where Trina Solar  not only has their solar panel´s factory but also will constructed two more additional areas, one with several houses, for the company´s employees and another with schools, shops and a hospital for this mini-society that they have created regarding their workers needs when they started developing their business.

Scale reproduction of their future plans

Scale reproduction of their future plans

The third stage was a walk through the factory, where we were shown the machinery and the procedures of this process and the different areas in which the factory has divided the solar panel´s production. This was explained to us by a very nice guide who told us too, the particularities of each phase of the process.

The next stage was a very unique experience for all of us, as we had lunch in the factory´s canteen and where we experimented the huge gastronomical and behaviour differences between the Chinese culture and ours. So, even if Trina Solar is a leader company in this energy field, being one of the most important companies with a wide variety of partnerships throughout the world, they still have a typical and traditional Chinese canteen.

I mean that it was made very clear that they don´t waste much time and resources in this issue, that is, trying to adapt to what the modern XXI century society considers as a standard canteen, with a minimum appearance and hygiene levels.

As an end to this visit, we went again to the auditorium, where two experts answered, or maybe is better said, tried to answer the doubts that we had during the same. A thing that we can take from this visit was that, in this company each worker has his own field and they don’t know much about the other components and elements that forms the solar panel´s process. It was very curious to see that they don’t even have an overall idea of how the different elements inside the company come together to create these leadership and global results.

To sum up I think that this visit was very illustrative and I have to thank Trina Solar  for their attention in all moments and their predisposition to show us how this company works inside and out, clarifying our doubts.

It´s clear that they had organise this visit with lot of care.


Negotiation with Chinese business people

China is a country where culture and business are together. You should not do business in China without understanding the chinese culture before.
The first thing to account is the fact that language barriers exist. Is well known that english is the language of world-trading, however chinese businessmen can not always speak english so it would be advisable to negotiate in their mother language. You can either learn the language or bring your own interpreter in order to express your ideas with a high degree of accuracy.

In addition, Its important to meet an strategic business partner in China, which is not always an easy thing to do .
When looking for the right person to trust or rely on, you must have be aware of the fact that chinese people are very pragmatic and they would not hesitate in liying you if that allow them taking advantage of you or being in a better position

It is also important to settle a two ways trust relationship with your partners and an easy action to achieve this easily is serching information about them previously to the negotiation. By doing this, you will anticipate their expectations and achieve a more  advantageable agreement.

As a conclusion I would say that significant differences within cultures and backgrounds can create several problems and misunderstandings when negotiating.

 

Knowing our Chinese Business Partner

Knowing our Chinese Business Partner

 


Expatriation in China

My topic for today is expatriation in China, which I believe it’s an interesting topic. Unfortunately we haven’t seen this in class, so I’m going to explain what it is supposed to be an expat in china based on what I have been seen all these days in Shanghai.

As in the recent years the polices in china for foreign investment are more flexible, the number of expats in China has increased for sure, foreign companies want to be in this country, and they, most of the time will rely in a western employees to start businesses. During these past years I think that most of the expats are working in export products from their company, as most of the production is there, they are in the country to make sure about the quality of the products and also that the export is being delivered in the safest conditions.

According to the 5-year plan that the government launches every 5 years, (the next plan will be 2016-2020) the expats that will arrive to China will be heavily related to renewable energies and the environment. In Europe, for example, we already have a lot of expertise in this area, and we can help China with the ‘little’ problem they have regarding pollution, and I’m sure that companies will invest a lot in these environmental issues.

Daily life in China is not easy, due to that we have very different cultures and languages, communication and negotiation are always difficult. For these reasons (and for many more) I think that the conditions for all the expats are likely to be quite good, as the company will provide housing, western schools system for the children, transportation and all the benefits to try to encourage employees moving to China.

To sum up, I think that to be an expat in China is not easy, but it’s an experience that will change the way employees understand each other inside the company. Because of the challenge of living in China, spending few years here is one of the best things that could happen to your professional carrier.

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Establishing Business in China

17/03/2015
There are some key points that any who wants to establish a business in China must take into account. In this Blog we will analyze the main factors and steps to be followed:

  1. Sectors open to foreign investement. One  important issue is that direct foreign investment is not permitted across the board in China.  If you are planning to invest in China, the first step is verify whether and under what conditions your activity is open to foreign investment. The “Foreign investment industrial guidance catalogue”  classifies foreign investment in business as encouraged, restricted, prohibited or permitted. With this in mind we will know if our business is welcome or not in China.
  2. Destination of Choice. Even though Shanghai, Beijin and Guangzhou  are the major business, goverment and industrial centers, the business opportunities there are quite a few at the current time. Now the competition between companies in Shanghai or Beijin is huge, and a new business here must be carefully studied  if you want to succed. The new policies of the goverment are focused on less developed regions like Xinjiang, Chongqing, Sichuan or Yunnan, where new business have greater acceptance. In this regard,  the “Central-western catalogue”  lists activities and sectors in which foreign investement is encouraged in central and western regions, having preferential treatment under different policies.
  3. Forms of business establishment: Before you register with the government, you have to decide what type of business entitity to register. Ther most common for foreign business are Representative Offices (ROs), Joint Ventures and Wholly Owned Foreign Enterprises (WFOE). A Representative Office is the easiest way to enter the business with low costs. It is the strategy adopted at first stage of investment in a new country.  Actually, a RO limits the scope of your business since you cannot deliver any service or product and you cannot generate revenue. It is just there to represent your offshore entity to show you up and build your brand name.  A Joint Venture  requires a partnership with a Chinese citizen, in other words, you buy  shares of an established company in China through a partner that has  experience in China. It is the only strategy to enter the market in a short period with a local partner, but in fact is not the best alternative to follow. Finally, a Wholly Owned Foreign Enterprise ( WFOE) is a limited liability company owned by one or more individual or corporate foreign investors. The liability of the investors is limited to their subscribed registered capital. It is the most common choice for new foreign investments and give business owners the maximum quality control. On the other hand, a WFOE is much more complicated to set up and takes more time to get approval from the government, requiring also a minimal capital investment that you must put in a Chinese bank.
  4. Other major issues: The importance of developing a five-year plan business is crucial since once the govertment approves it, you will be able to operate only within its gidelines. Also, it is very important to find a liaison or representative to register your business, no matter how informed you are, and which will help you also to organize the necessary documents. Finally, be aware of trademark your intellectual property since intellectual property violations are a big issue for foreign investors in China.

 

And last but not least, take it slow. Chinese people like to take their time, doing business in a certain manner for thousands of years. Don´t even start to think that you are going to change it  ;)

 


Alberto Arias Fernández >>

Chineasy. Aprender Chino

Hace poco ha llegado a mis manos algo muy interesante llamado “Chineasy”. Es una nueva herramienta para aprender chino que conoce de cómo funciona nuestra mente para hacernos más fácil el aprendizaje. Aprender chino es especialmente importante y difícil. Es de las lenguas con más palabras que existen y además funciona de una manera totalmente distinta a todas aquellas lenguas provenientes del latín. Además como bien es sabido China está emergiendo como primera potencia y no cabe decir la importancia de hablar chino.

Chineasy se basa en mecanismos visuales que ayudan a la mente a asociar y recordar las palabras chinas con la idea que representan. Además según se modifica la palabra también lo hace el significado de la misma.

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Dejo a continuación el canal de youtube de Chineasy con las clases que ofrece:

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCBNzhTi3AbfUxjbVY_n029g



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